THIS Flora of the Pacific States has been made to enable pupils to obtain a clear idea of the method of classifying plants through practical experience in identifying the most common genera and species of the coast. It is to serve as a guide in understanding the characteristics and relationships of large and important orders and genera, and, to some extent, in identifying species.

The species included have been those most widely dis- tributed or those most abundant near large centers of popula- tion, so that sufficient material might easily be obtained for class study. Species not clearly and easily denned have been omitted even when abundant, so as to render the possibility of error as little as possible. Where a difference of opinion exists among botanists in regard to generic names, both have generally been given, one in parentheses.

Teachers will find, in whatever part of the Pacific States they may be, that they can collect a sufficient number of the plants here included to afford their pupils all the drill neces- sary. It is advised that the teachers furnish the plants for class study, being careful to select only from those here included rather than to allow the pupils themselves to select at random from the flora of the neighborhood ; otherwise, the pupil is likely to become discouraged by failure in identifying

plants not described in the book.




Teachers who are in doubt about any plants are earnestly requested to send specimens to the Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, where they will be compared with herbarium speci- mens and identified. The specimens should have both flower and fruit when possible, and in the case of herbs the entire plant should be sent, root and all.

It requires quite a library of botanical books to identify Pacific Coast species, since there is no book published that contains even all the known species, and there are many species still undiscovered. It is neither possible nor desirable to attempt to include all in a school flora. The chief books needed for a more complete study are the two large and expensive volumes of the State Geological Survey ; the fol- lowing botanical works of Prof. E. L. Greene : Pittonia, Flora Franciscana, and The Botany of the Bay Region ; Western Cone-bearers, by J. G. Lemmon ; and, for Composttce and Gamopetala}, Gray's Synoptical Flora:

The plan of arrangement in preparing this Flora has been that of Professor Bergen's Key and Flora to the Spring- blooming Plants of the Northern and Middle States, which replaces this in the Eastern edition of his book. It seemed that a plan which he had tried and found successful was better to adopt than one that was new and untried. When- ever possible, his descriptions have been used, the aim throughout having been to follow as he led.

The botany of the Geological Survey, Professor Greene's botanical works, and Dr. Behr's Botany of the Vicinity of San Francisco have all been used in compiling the descriptions and making the Key.


The pronunciation is indicated by accent marks and the division of the accented syllable. A vowel ending this syllable has a long sound; but when the accented syllable ends in a consonant, the vowel has a short sound. It matters little whether the English or Continental sounds for the vowels are used; the former are more generally authorized, though the latter are becoming more and more prevalent.

In this revised edition I am indebted to Prof. C. V. Piper, of the Agricultural College, at Pullman, Washington, for additions to the Flora from Washington and Oregon, and to Mr. Louis A. Greata, of Los Angeles, for additions from the country adjacent to Los Angeles.





GYMNOSPERMS. Ovules not enclosed in an ovary.

Trees or shrubs, usually with needle-shaped or scale-like evergreen leaves and monoecious or dioecious flowers in catkins, the pistillate ones usually ripening into cones (Coniferse), Pine Family, p. 13

ANGIOSPERMS. Ovules in an ovary.

MONOCOTYLEDONS. Flowers generally on plan of 3, never of 5 ; leaves

usually parallel-veined.

GLUMACEOUS DIVISION. Flowers rudimentary, enclosed in husk-like

bracts. Bracts for each flower 2 ; stems jointed, hollow, cylindrical or nearly

so (Graminese), Grass Family, p. 21

Bracts for each flower 1; stems not jointed, solid, triangular

(CyperacesB), Sedge Family, p. 22

PETALOIDEOUS DIVISION. Flowers having a true perianth ; not on a spadix. Ovary free from the perianth, Stamens 6

(Liliaceae), Lily Family, p. 23 Ovary adnate to the perianth.

Stamens 6 . (Amaryllidaceae), Century Plant Family, p. 36

Stamens 3 (Iridaceae), Iris Family, p. 37

Stamens 1 or (rarely) 2 . . (Orchidaceae), Orchis Family, p. 39

DICOTYLEDONS. Flowers generally on the plan of 4 or 5. In woody

plants the woody fiber forms concentric rings.

DIVISION I. APETAL.E. With but one set of floral envelopes or none. Flowers in catkins. Trees or shrubs.

Dioecious, 1 flower to each scale of the catkin; fruit a many-seeded pod, each seed furnished with a tuft of cotton

(Salicacese), Willow Family, p. 40

Monoecious ; sterile catkins drooping ; fertile, erect, cone-like, with 1 or 2 flowers under each stiff, shield-shaped scale

(Betulaceae), Alder Family, p. 42 5


Monoecious, androgynous ; catkins short, erect, with 1 flower under each scale of the fertile catkin ; fruit a round nutlet

(Myricacese), Wax-myrtle Family, p. 40

Monoecious, sterile flowers only in catkins ; fruit a nut in a cup or bur, or a leaf -like cylindrical sheath

(Cupuliferae), Oak Family, p. 44

Dioecious, sterile flowers with calyx 4-parted, stamens 4 ; fertile flowers with calyx 2-lobed or wanting, ovi.ry 1-celled, 2-ovuled, styles 2 ; fruit a berry (Garryaceae), Silk-tassel Bush Family, p. 120

Flowers not in catkins. Ovary inferior,

6-celled, perianth regular and 3-lobed or irregular, stamens 6-12 (Aristolochiacese), Dutchman's Pipe Family, p. 46

l-celled, sunk in the axis of the conical spike, which has numerous flowers, and a persistent petal-like involucre ; flowers naked, of 6-8 stamens and 3-6 pistils, each subtended by a white bract. Aromatic herbs of wet alkaline places

(Houttuynia), Yerba Mansa, p. 40

Ovary superior,

3-celled, 3-ovuled, stigmas 3-6. Monoecious or dioecious. Staminate flowers with 1 to many stamens. Plants with milky juice

(Euphorbiacese), Spurge Family, p. 99

l-celled, forming a 3-sided akene, stamens 9, perianth of 6 divisions usually colored like a corolla

(Polygonacese), Buckwheat Family, p. 47

l-celled, forming a flat akene with embryo coiled, stamens 5 opposite the divisions of the green perianth ; plants often fleshy and covered with scurf . . (Chenopodiacese), Pigweed Family, p. 49

Similar to Chenopodiaceae, but the divisions of the perianth are papery and persistent with similar bracts

(Amarantacese), Amaranth Family, p. 51

l-celled, 1-seeded, calyx corolla-like, monosepalous, the persistent herbaceous base hardening around the akene, style 1 ; flowers in calyx-like involucres

(Nyctaginaceae), Four-o'clock Family, p. 51

Stamens 9 in 3 rows, anthers 4-celled, opening by uplifted valves ; sepals 6, petaloid, pistil simple ; flowers in umbels ; trees with aromatic foliage . . . (Lauracese), Laurel Family, p. 63

DIVISION II. POLYPETAL;E. Petals distinct (in some genera wanting). Stamens hypogynous (on the receptacle below the superior ovary).


Stamens Numerous

Separate, and the other floral organs distinct, petals sometimes want- ing, flowers with the sepals 5 or irregular

(Ranunculaceae), Buttercup Family, p. 58

•Separate, flowers regular, sepals (generally 2) half as many as the petals and falling as the petals expand

(Papaveraceae), Poppy Family, p. 64

Monadelphous, attached to the bases of the petals. Anthers 1-celled, kidney-shaped

(Malvaceae), Mallow Family, p. 105

Anthers 2-celled, petals wanting, sepals petal-like

(Fremontia), p. 107

United into 3-5 bunches, sepals and petals 5, leaves opposite, punctate (Hypericaceae), St. John's-wort Family, p. 107

About 20, sepals 5 (2 scale-like), petals 5, soon falling

(Cistaceae), Rockrose Family, p. 108

Stamens 10 or less

10 (rarely fewer), petals 5 (sometimes wanting), capsule splitting into twice as many valves as styles. Seeds on axillary placenta

(Caryophyllaceae), Pink Family, p. 55

10 or 5, sepals and petals 5, carpels 5 on a spike-like axis, distinct at base hut cohering hy their stigmas and separating from the axis at the base first, 1-seeded (Geraniaceae), p. 95

10, sepals and petals 5, carpels distinct, 1-seeded, globose, at the base of a common style ; juice pungent . . . (Limnanthes), p. 97

10, sepals and petals 5, carpels united into a 5-celled ovary with 5 styles ; leaves compound with 3 leaflets ; juice acid . . (Oxalis), p. 97

10 or 5, equal to or double the number of petals ; herbs with fleshy leaves .... (Crassulaceae), Stonecrop Family, p. 74

6 or 9, anthers 2-celled r opening by uplifted valves like wings ; bracts,

sepals, petals, and stamens opposite each other ; pistil simple

(Berberidacese), Barberry Family, p. 62

6 (4 long and 2 short), petals and sepals 4 (petals sometimes wanting) ; fruit 2-celled with a papery partition, or sometimes 1-celled and indehiscent ; herbs with pungent juice

(Cruciferae), Mustard Family, p. 67

6, or sometimes more, nearly equal, sepals and petals 4 ; pod 1-celled, on a long slender stalk (Capparidaceae), Caper Family, p. 73


6, united by the filaments to form 2 equal sets ; flowers irregular

(Fumariaceae), Bleeding Heart Family, p. 66

5, sometimes united over the pistil ; petals 5, one of them with a spur

(Violacese), Violet Family, p. 109

1 to many, sepals 2-8, petals 5-16, styles 3-8-cleft, ovary 1-celled with

placenta axillary ; plants with fleshy leaves and mostly showy flowers that open only in bright sunshine

(Portulacacese), Portulaca Family, p. 52

Stamens 4-7, petals 4-5 with long claws, ovary 1-celled, with as many parietal placentae as divisions of the style

(Frankeniacese), Yerba Reuma Family, p. 108

6-8, the filaments united into a split sheath ; flowers irregular, super- ficially resembling the Papilionaceae, sepals 5, petals 2; pod 2-celled, flattened contrary to the partition

(Polygalaceae), Polygala Family, p. 98

5, monadelphous at base, petals soon falling, capsule splitting into twice as many divisions as stigmas

(Linacese),.Flax Family, p. 98

2 (rarely 3 or 4), petals 4, 2, or Avanting, calyx 4-toothed ; fruit winged

from the summit, 1-seeded ; polygamous or dioecious trees or shrubs with opposite compound leaves . . (Fraxinus), Ash, p. 128

Ovary superior or nearly so.

Stamens distinctly on the calyx or on a disk simulating a calyx tube

Numerous ; ovary simple or compound, free from or partly united to the disk ; leaves alternate, with stipules that sometimes fall early ; seeds without endosperm (Rosacese), Rose Family, p. 80

Stamens indefinite, petals merging into the sepals, carpels numerous, becoming akenes within a hollow disk; aromatic shrubs, having opposite leaves and no stipules

(Calycanthaceae), Sweet Shrub Family, p. 80

Variable in number (5, 10, 20), carpels 2-5, completely or partially united to the calyx, styles distinct ; leaves without stipules ; seed with endosperm (Saxifragaceae), Saxifrage Family, p. 75

10, distinct, monadelphous or diadelphous ; flowers papilionaceous ; fruit a legume . . . (Papilionacese), Pea Family, p. 89

Numerous, distinct ; flowers regular of 4 or 5 sepals and petals ; fruit a legume (Mimoseae), Acacia Family, p. 95

5 or fewer, petals minute and scale-like (or none) ; fruit a loosely covered 1-seeded indehiscent pod enclosed in the persistent calyx ; stipules papery (Hlecebracese), Sand Mat Family, p. 57


Stamens on a disk, not simulating a calyx tube

Inserted on the inner margin of the disk, as many or twice as many as the petals and alternate with them (usually 5) ; ovary 1-celled, 1-ovuled ; fruit a berry

(Anacardiacese), Poison Oak Family, p. 101

Inserted on the outer margin of the disk, as many as the petals and opposite them (petals sometimes wanting) ; style or stigma 2- 4-lobed ; fruit a berry or dry pod with 2-4 hard seeds

(Rhamnacese), Buckthorn Family, p. 103

5-8, corolla irregular with 4 or 5 unequal petals ; ovary 3-celled, ovules 6, only 1 maturing .... (JEsculus), Buckeye, p. 102

3-12 (usually 8) ; flowers perfect with petals, or dioecious and apetalous ; fruit of 2 parts, each winged . . . (Acer), Maple, p. 102

Ovary distinctly inferior.

Stamens perigynous (on the calyx)

Stamens 4-8, sepals and petals 4 ; ovary 4-celled

(Onagraceae), Evening Primrose Family, p. Ill

Stamens numerous, usually some petaloid, petals and sepals 5 ; herbage adhesive with barbed hairs

(Loasacese), Blazing Star«Family, p. 115

Stamens, petals, and sepals numerous; fruit fleshy, 1-celled; spiny, leafless plants . . . (Cactacese), Cactus Family, p. 115

Stamens and petals numerous, sepals 5, capsules 3-5-celletl ; leaves and stems fleshy . . (Ficoideas), Fig Marigold Family, p. 116

Stamens numerous ; ovary 3-5-celled, opening at the top ; calyx falling off like a lid, setting free the stamens and producing a tassel-like blossom (Eucalyptus), Gum Tree, p. 110

Stamens epigynous (on the ovary)

Stamens, petals, and sepals 5 (the last very small), styles 2 ; fruit a pair of seed-like carpels ; flowers small in umbels ; leaves alternate, compound . . . (Umbelliferse), Parsley Family, p. 117

Similar to Umbelliferse, except the styles and carpels 4 or 5 ; fruit a berry, and umbels panicled

(Araliacese), Ginseng Family, p. 116

Stamens, sepals, and petals 4 ; fruit a 1-seeded berry ; flowers in cymes or heads ; leaves simple, opposite

(Cornaceae), Dogwood Family, p. 119


DIVISION III. GAMOPETAL^E. Petals united into a cup or tube.

Ovary free from the calyx (superior). Corolla regular.

Ovary deeply 4-lobed, in fruit forming 4 nutlets

(Borraginaceae), Borage Family, p. 137

Ovary 2-celled, ovules numerous ; fruit often a berry

(Solanacese), Nightshade Family, p. 145

Ovary 2-celled (generally 4-ovuled) ; twining plants

(Convolvulacese), Morning-glory Family, p. 132

Ovary 1-celled or imperfectly 2-celled, styles 2-cleft or entire

(Hydrophyllaceae), Baby-eyes Family, p. 133

Ovary 3-celled with axillary placenta, style 3-lobed

(Polemoniacese), Phlox Family, p. 130

Ovary 1-celled with 2 parietal placentae, style 1, stigmas 2

(Gentianacese), Gentian Family, p. 128

Ovary cells as many as petals, style 1, anthers 2-celled, opening by holes at the top . . (Ericaceae), Heather Family, p. 120

Ovary 1-celled with axillary placenta, stamens opposite the petals (Primulacese), Primrose Family, p. 125

Ovary 5-angled, 1-celled, 1-seeded, styles 5 1 (Plumbaginaceae), Sea Pink Family, p. 127

Ovary 2-celled (sometimes 3-4-celled) with 1 seed in each cell (some- times more in Plantago major)

(Plantaginacese), Plantain Family, p. 153

Ovaries 2, distinct, with a stigma common to both and united with a crown-like column of stamens ; flowers in umbels ; seeds with a tuft of silky hairs ; plants with milky juice (Asclepiadacese), Silkweed or Milkweed Family, p. 129

Similar to Asclepiadaceie, except that the stamens are distinct and

free from the stigma, but the anthers are disposed to cohere with it

(Apocynacese), Dogbane Family, p. 130

Corolla irregular. Fertile stamens fewer than the divisions of the


Ovary deeply 4-lobed, becoming 4 nutlets ; corolla 2-lipped ; aromatic

herbs or shrubs . . . (Labiatse), Mint Family, p. 139

Ovary 2-celled, seeds many on a central placenta, style and stigma 1

(Scrophulariacese), Figwort Family, p. 146

Ovary 2-celled with 2 or more parietal placentae, seeds many ; root- parasites without leaves or green color

(Orobanchacese), Broom Rape Family, p. 153


Ovary adnate to the calyx (inferior).

Ovary with as many cells as petals, anthers 2-celled, opening hy holes at the top ; fruit a berry

(Vaccinium), Huckleberry, p. 120

Ovary 2-5-celled (sometimes becoming l-«elled); fruit a berry ; leaves opposite, without stipules

(Caprifoliacese), Honeysuckle Family, p. 156

Ovary 2-5-celled ; leaves opposite with stipules, or whorled and without stipules . . (Rubiacese), Madder Family, p. 154

Ovary 1-3-celled ; flowers monoacious or dioecious ; trailing or .climbing tendril-bearing herbs ; fruit fleshy, iudehiscent

(Cueurbitaceae), Gourd Family, p. 158

Ovary 2-5-celled, with axillary placenta, style 2-5-cleft

(Canipaimlacese), Harebell Family, p. 159

Ovary 2-celled with axillary placenta, or 1-celled with parietal placentae ; stamens united by both filaments and anthers

(Lobeliaceae), Lobelia Family, p. 160

Ovary 3-celled, 2 cells empty, fruit 1-seeded ; stamens 3, corolla

tubular, slightly irregular, border of the calyx plumose or wanting

(Valerianacese), Valerian Family, p. 158

Ovary 1-celled, becoming an akene, stamens united by their anthers in a tube ; flowers many, combined in heads and appearing like a single flower . . (Composite), Sunflower Family, p. 161


Plants destitute of a closed ovary, style, or stigma ; ovules generally borne naked on a carpellary scale, which forms part of a cone. Cotyledons often several.


Trees or shrubs with wood of peculiar structure, destitute of ducts, with resinous and aromatic juice. Leaves generally evergreen and needle-shaped or scale-shaped. Flowers desti- tute of floral envelopes, monoecious or dioecious. Male flowers consisting of stamens arranged in a spike, and resembling a catkin, with pollen sacs at the base of scales, subtended by a cluster of bracts like an involucre. Female flowers consisting of naked ovules at the base of scales arranged in a spike with a cluster of bracts below, in fruit forming a cone with the seeds under the scales or becoming a one- to few-seeded berry.

I. JUNDP'ERUS, Juniper, Cedar

Flowers dioecious, axillary or terminal. Staminate clusters numerous, with scales whoiied or opposite, on a central axis, and 2-6 anther cells to each scale. Pistillate clusters of 3-6 fleshy scales, each bearing 1-2 erect ovules. Fruit a berry. Seeds bony. Shrubs or low trees, usually branching irregularly, with aromatic wood, and thin, shreddy bark. Leaves either triangular, scale-like, folding over each other, or linear, rigid, pointed, and free from each other.

n. CUPRES'SUS, Cypress

Monoecious. Staminate clusters small, very numerous, and at the tips of tiny branchlets ; pollen sacs 3-5 at the base of each scale. Fertile clusters erect on short lateral branchlets,



forming, when ripe, roundish or oblong woody cones, con- sisting of 6-10 very thick, shield-shaped scales, fitting closely together ; cones maturing in two years in all except the last ; ovules numerous, in several rows at the base of the scales, forming acutely angled seeds. Leaves evergreen, scale- shaped, imbricated. When the tree is allowed to grow naturally, it is pyramidal, or roundish, with rather loose, straggling branches and pointed or rounded at the top. In bloom in winter or early spring.

a. C. macrocar'pa Hartweg. MONTEREY CYPRESS. This has dense foliage and oblong cones clustered on short stems. It is extensively cultivated throughout California for wind breaks and hedges; also trimmed into the most fantastic shapes, which are supposed to he ornamental.

b. C. Govenia'na Gordon. MOUNTAIN CYPRESS. This is a more loosely branched and smaller tree, with the upper branches slender and drooping. The cones are an inch or less long, and are globose, rarely oblong. This, too, is cultivated. In its native state it grows throughout the Coast Mountains.

c. C. Macnabia'na Murr. This is a small tree with fine foliage very fragrant, sprinkled all over with white glands, so that the tree is pale green. The cones are small, with horn-like projections on the scales. This also is cultivated, but rarely. It is a native of the mountains of Lake County.

d. C. Lawsonia'na Murr (ChamaBcy'paris). PORT ORFORD CEDAR. This differs from the other species of Cupressus in having flattened, 2-ranked branches, and the cones ripening in one year. Cones very small, g- of an inch in diameter, globose, with 8 or 10 flat scales which are bluish green when young. Seeds 2-4 to each scale, somewhat winged. This is a tall, symmetrical tree with slender branches, often drooping. It is frequently cultivated and is a very valuable timber tree. The wood is very fragrant and is used in making chests and cupboards where it is desirable to keep out insects. It is also known as Oregon Cedar and Ginger Pine. It is found chiefly in the Coast Mountains of Oregon.

m. THU'YA, Arbor-vitae

Monoecious. Staminate flowers numerous, very small, with 3 or 4 pollen sacs at the base of the 4-6 pointed scales. Fertile clusters at the ends of branchlets. Cones very small, \ inch long, soon reflexed, ripening in one year, with 8-12 erect


scales in pairs, having a pair of winged seeds under all except the top and bottom pair. These are tall, symmetrical trees, with horizontally flattened branches and scale-shaped, evergreen leaves adnate and decurrent in 4 rows, with the tips free.

T. gigante'a Nutt. This is a very tall tree found in the Coast Mountains of Oregon, in Washington, northern Idaho, and British Columbia. The cones are densely clustered at the ends of the droop- ing branchlets, and the foliage is a bright, shining green. The bark is thin and fibrous, the wood soft but durable.

IV. LIBOCE'DRUS, Incense Cedar

Similar to Thuya, but with 12 or more scales on the stami- nate cluster and with the cones not reflexed. These consist of 4-6 thick scales in pairs, the two largest only bearing seeds. Seeds with unequal wings.

L. decur'rens Torrey. This becomes a large tree in the Sierra Nevada Mountains and has a trunk resembling that of the giant Sequoia. It is also found on almost all the higher hills of the Coast Mountains.

V. SEQUOI'A, Redwood

Monoecious. Staminate flowers small, very numerous near the ends of young shoots, with 3-5 pollen sacs under each scale. Fertile flowers at the ends of branchlets, consisting of several scales with long-pointed tips which become bristles on the shield-shaped scales of the cone. Each scale is diamond- shaped with lines running to the center, giving the cone a quilted appearance. The Sequoias are the largest trees on earth. Their leaves are flattened or triangular scale-shaped ; the bark very thick, fibrous, and spongy ; the wood red and soft, easily split longitudinally, and the bark also cleaving longitudinally. Both species are cultivated in different parts of California.

a. S. semper7 virens Endl. REDWOOD. Cones small, oblong, of about 20 scales, maturing in one season ; lower leaves fiat, 2-ranked ; upper leaves, on tall trees, scale-shaped. This forms immense forests in northern California and extends, along the coast, from southern Oregon to Point Gorda in Monterey County. The specific name


arises from its tenacity of life. It sends up new trees in a circle around where a tree has been cut down. In bloom in winter.

b. S. gigante'a Decaisne. MAMMOTH SEQUOIA, BIG TREE. Upper and lower leaves alike, scale-shaped,, with long-pointed tips ; cones about 2 in. long of 25-30 scales, requiring two seasons to ripen. This is found in groves in moist, protected valleys in the higher Sierras, from Placer County through Tulare County.


Tall trees tapering from a rather broad base to a pointed top, with horizontal branches and brittle wood that soon decays. Leaves apparently in 2 ranks, generally erect, twisted at base. Cones erect, near the top of the tree, the scales and seeds falling away from the axes, which remain like candles on a Christmas tree. The cones are therefore never found under the trees, only the fallen scales.

a. A. con'color Lindl. WHITE FIR. Large trees with old bark rough, gray, and furrowed. Leaves pale green, obtuse. Cones 3-5 in. long, green or purple when ripe. This is the common fir of middle elevations in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. It also extends into Oregon.

b. A. gran'dis Lindl. Tall and large trees with smooth, brownish bark. Leaves dark green and glossy on the upper surface, with 2 white lines on the lower, obtuse or notched at apex. Cones 2-4 in. long. This is probably the tallest fir in the world. It is found near the coast from northern California to British Columbia and is one of the most important sources of lumber.

VH. PFCEA, Spruce

Tall trees, shaped as the firs, and with soft but strong wood. Leaves sessile, spirally arranged, falling frc-m the branchlets as soon as dry and leaving the stems covered with numerous tiny projections, sometimes appearing in 2 ranks. Cones drooping, growing on the upper branches, falling to the ground when ripe and always to be found under the bearing trees with the scales spirally arranged on the axes.

a. P. Sitchen'sis Carr. TIDELAND SPRUCE. Very tall and large trees with thin, scaly, brownish red bark. Leaves slender, sessile, with short points at the apex. Cones 1^-3 in. long, yellowish.


This is one of the most important trees of the northern Pacific coast and is probably the largest spruce in the world. It extends from northern California to Alaska.

b. P. Engelman'ni Engelm. EXGELMANN SPRUCE, WHITE SPRUCE. Bark light cinnamon-red, broken into thin loose scales. Young trees of pyramidal outline ; old trees in forests with long straight trunks and pyramidal at top. Leaves stiff, ending in a sharp tip. Branchlets pubescent. Cones cylindrical, about 2 in. long. Wood white, valuable as timber. This replaces the preceding species east of the Cascade Mountains.

Vm. TSU'GA, Hemlock Spruce

Similar to the true spruces but with flatter leaves, having short petioles joined to a hard, -woody, persistent base. Seeds resinous on the surface and cones smaller. Tall trees of pyramidal outline and slender, drooping branchlets.

a. T. heterophyl'la Sargent. Bark thick, reddish brown. Cones less than an inch long, ovate. This is found along the coast from northern California to Alaska and is one of the most important timber trees.

6. T. Mertensia'na Sargent (T, Pattonia'na). PATTON'S SPRUCE, HEMLOCK SPRUCE. Trees with thick, cracked bark, reddish gray and apt to be scaly. Cones long and slender, 2-3 inches in length. Seeds with wings almost twice their length. This is shrubby at great elevations, but when favorably situated becomes a tree more than a hundred feet high. The apex is slender and pendent and the trunk generally slopes at base. It is found in the higher Sierra Nevada Mountains and northward to Alaska, where it grows along the coast.

IX. PSEUDOTSU'GA, Douglas Spruce

Mowers monoecious, from the axils of last year's leaves. Staminate clusters subtended by conspicuous involucres of bud scales ; pollen scales with 2 oblong pollen sacs tipped by an awl-shaped spur. Fertile clusters near the ends of branchlets, dark red or yellowish green, with scales concealed by 2-lobed, long, pointed bracts. Cones oblong, drooping, maturing in one year, but remaining on the trees after the seeds have fallen out. The leaves are flat and 2-ranked, on short petioles. This can easily be distinguished from other conifers by the fringe-like bracts over the scales of the drooping cone.


P. mucrona'ta Sudw. (P. Douglas'ii Carr), (incorrectly called OREGON PINE and RED FIR). This is found in California and Oregon, and usually grows near streams. It becomes a very tall tree. The wood is yellow or reddish and rather coarse, and the bark is fissured.

X. PFNUS, Pine

Monoecious. Staminate clusters crowded at the base of the young shoots of the season ; pollen scales spirally arranged, forming an elongated, cylindrical cluster, with 2 pollen sacs to each scale (Fig. 1, 2). Fertile flowers of spirally arranged carpel scales on an axis, each scale bearing 2 ovules at base (Fig. 1, 8). Fruit a cone ripening the second year, but often remaining unopened on the tree several years. Leaves ever- green, needle-shaped, in bundles of from 2-5, enclosed in a sheath of membranous scales (Fig. 1, d). Seeds generally winged (Fig. 1, 4).

a. P. Lambertia'na Dougl. SUGAR PINE. Leaves 5 in a sheath, 3-4 in- long. Cones long, narrow, cylindrical, from a foot to more than 2 ft. long when fully grown, pendent at the ends of the branches the second year, the scales without knobs or prickles. This is a very tall and large pine, with the upper branches widely spreading and with irregular and picturesque outlines. It is common in the Sierra Nevada Mountains at moderately high elevations and on most of the high peaks of the Coast Mountains, extending into Washington and Oregon.

b. P. montic'ola Dougl. SMALL SUGAR PINE. This is a smaller tree than the preceding but similar, with leaves 5 in a sheath, about 2 in. long. Cones 3-8 in. long, with the scales without knobs or prickles, reflexed when the seeds are ripe. This is common in the higher Sierra Nevada Mountains, especially northward, and extends into Oregon and Washington at lower elevations.

c. P. pondero'sa Dougl. YELLOW PINE. Leaves 3 in a sheath, 5-11 in. long, rather thick. Cones oval, 3-5 in. long, sessile, spread- ing or recurved, generally several together ; scales with stout prickles. Wings on the seeds not quite an inch long, widest above the middle. This is one of the largest pines of the coast. It is found in the mountains in the same region as the Sugar Pine but more widely distributed. The variety Jeffrey! is found generally at higher eleva- tions and has longer, coarser leaves, and much larger cones. This is the most widely distributed species and one of the most prized timber trees.



d. P. contor'ta Dougl. Leaves 2 in a sheath, short. Cones small and slender, 1-3 in. long, whorled, oblique, often remaining closed for many years ; scales with strong knobs and delicate prickles. This is a small tree. It is found along the coast from California to Alaska.


FIG. 1. Scotch Pine (7*. syleestris).

1, a twig showing : a, staminate catkins ; ft, pistillate catkins ; c, a cone ; rf, needles. 2, an anther : a, side view ; 6, outer surface. 3, a carpel scale : a, inner surface ; 6, outer surface. 4, a cone scale, a seed wing, and a seed. 5, section of a seed, showing the emhryo. 1 is natural size ; the other parts of the figure are magni- fied hy the amount indicated by comparison with the vertical line alongside each.

The variety Murrayana is a tall, straight tree, growing in the moun- tains and known as Lodge-pole Pine, from the use made of the slender, straight stems by the Indians. It is widely distributed and variable.


e. P. radia'ta Don (P. insig'nis Dougl.). MONTEREY PJNE. Leaves 5 in a sheath, 4-6 in. long, slender, lax, closely serrate, bright green, densely clustered. Cones encircling the stem, deflexed on short stems, pointed, curved inwards, owing to the difference between the inner and outer scales. The cones remain on the tree two or more years without opening. This pine is most extensively cultivated in California for wind-breaks. It grows nearly 100 ft. in height.

f. P. attenua'ta Lemmon (P. tubercula'ta Gord.). KNOB-CONE PINE. Leaves 3 in a sheath, 4-7 in. long. Cones in whorls, often with several whorls in a bunch, strongly reflexed on short stems, oblique, tapering to a very narrow base, with the apex pointed ; the outer scales are enlarged and conical, the inner flatter, both tipped with stout prickles. The cones persist on the stems and branches many years without opening. This is a small tree and often begins to bear cones when a foot or two high. It is found in the Coast Mountains and in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains.

g. P. Sabinia'na Dougl. NUT PINE, BULL PINE, DIGGER PINE. Leaves 3 in a sheath, 8-12 in. long, light glaucous green, slender, droop- ing; cones massive, short-oval, 6-10 in. long, 5-7 in. in diameter near the base, deflexed on short, stout stems ; scales with stout, claw-like projections. The nuts are edible and have a stony shell, and formed an important part of the food of the Digger Indians. This tree generally has loose spreading branches and is very graceful. The long light-green foliage easily distinguishes it from other pines. The cones often remain on the branches several years after the seeds have fallen out. This pine is the most common in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains and in the valleys of the Coast Mountains.


Plants with a closed ovary, in which the -seeds are matured. Cotyledons 1-2.


Stems with theTfbro-vascular bundles scattered amid the parenchyma cells. There are in perennial plants no annual rings of wood. Leaves usually parallel-veined, alternate, nearly entire. Parts of the flower generally in threes (never in fives). Cotyledon 1.




Mostly herbs, with usually hollow stems, closed and enlarged at the nodes. Alternate leaves, in 2 ranks, with sheathing bases, which are split open on the side opposite the blade. The flowers are nearly or quite destitute of floral envelopes, solitary, and borne in the axils of scaly bracts called glumes, which are arranged in 2 ranks overlapping each other on

FIG. 2. Diagram of Inflorescence of a Grass.

g, sterile glumes ; plt& flowering glume; pz, a scaly bract (palea) ; e, transparent scales (lodicules) at the base of the flower; £, the flower.

FIG. 3. Fescue-grass (Festuca


A, spikelet (compare Fig. 2) ; B, a flower, the lodicules in front and the palea behind ; C, a lodicule ; Z>, ovary.

1-many -flowered spikelets ; these are variously grouped in spikes or panicles. The fruit is a grain.



(The family is too difficult for the beginner, but the struc- ture and grouping of the flowers may be gathered from a careful study of Figs. 2, 3.)

FIG. 4. Inflorescence, Flower, and Seed of a Sedge.

(Great Bulrush, Scirpus lacustrls.)

A, magnified flower, surrounded by a perianth of hypogynous bristles ; seed ; C, section of the seed, showing the small embryo enclosed base of the endosperm.

B, the in the


Grass-like or rush-like herbs, with solid, usually triangular steins, growing in tufts. The sheathing base of the generally 3-ranked leaves, when present, is not slit as in grasses. The


flowers are usually somewhat less enclosed by bracts than those of grasses ; the perianth is absent or rudimentary ; stamens generally 3 ; style 2-cleft or 3-cleft.

The flower cluster and the flower may be understood from an inspection of Fig. 4.

The species are even more difficult to determine than those of grasses.


Smooth, perennial herbs, generally growing in wet places. Leaves large, radical or alternate. Flowers sessile, crowded on a spadix which is surrounded by a broad sheathing spathe. Perianth in our representative with 4 divisions. Ovary 2-celled and 2-ovuled. Fruit consisting of berries which coalesce on the spadix.

LYSICHI'TON, Skunk Cabbage

Leaves large, 1-3 ft. long and often a foot broad, growing from a thick rootstock. Spadix at first covered by a yellow- ish green spathe, later extending beyond it on a stout peduncle. Flowers covering the spadix. Stamens 4, oppo- site the segments of the perianth, with 2-celled anthers opening upwards.

L. Kamtschatcen'sis Schott. This is found in swamps from northern California to Alaska. It blooms in May and June. It is a beautiful plant with large, broad leaves, covering the swamps, but it has a strong and disagreeable odor, from which the common name is derived.


Herbs. Flowers regular and symmetrical, with their parts 3 or some multiple of 3. Ovary 3-celled, free from the perianth. Fruit a capsule or berry. Seeds with endosperm


I. AL'LIUM, Wild Onion

Plants with the odor and taste of onion. Scape from a coated bulb. Involucre with papery bracts. Pedicels not jointed under the flowers. Perianth rose-color or white. Stamens 6, with filaments broadening towards the base, attached to the perianth. Ovules 2 in each cell of the ovary, rarely all ripen- ing. (There are many species, difficult to determine. The most common are given.)

a. A. serra'tum Watson. Scape nearly a foot high. Perianth dark rose-color, with divisions in 2 sets, dissimilar. Ovary with wart-like crests at summit. Outer bulb coats marked with a horizontally zigzag veining which tears readily along the veins. This is common and abundant wherever found.

b. A. unifo'lium Kellogg. Scape usually 2 ft. or more high. Flowers pale rose-color or white, from 10 to 30 in the umbels. Ovary smooth at summit. Bulb propagating by a side offshoot, the white outer coats marked by a delicate, complicated veining. This grows in wet places and generally has more than one leaf.

c. A. acumina'tum Hook. CRIMSON-FLOWERED ONION. Scapes 4-6 in. high, from a bulb with outer coats, not fibrous, but marked with hexagonal or quadrangular venation. Leaves narrowly linear. Bracts of the involucre 2. Flowers crimson, on pedicels nearly an inch long, in erect umbels. Segments of the perianth recurved, with long, pointed tips, the inner ones wavy and minutely serrate. Generally grow- ing in adobe soil, blooming in spring and early summer. It is found chiefly on the eastern side of the Sierra Nevada Mountains and north to British Columbia.

d. A. attenuifo'lium Kellogg. Scape slender, from 6 in. to more than a foot high. Leaves narrow, becoming thread-like at tip. Bracts of the umbel 2, short, acute. Umbel with many white flowers. Segments of the perianth pointed, longer than the stamens. Ovary with 6 crests at summit. Bulb coats often reddish, with a fine, wavy veining. This is found in wet places in the Coast Mountains, in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, and it extends into Oregon.

e. A. falcifolium H. and A. Scape low, flat, 2-edged. Leaves 2, flat, broad, sickle-shaped. Bracts 2. Flowers deep crimson, the seg- ments of the perianth edged with minute, glandular teeth. Capsule pointed with short, narrow crests. Bulb large and globular, the mark- ings on the coats not distinctive. This is found in sandy or gravelly places on the hills of the Coast Mountains, especially northward, extending to Oregon.



Similar to Allium, but without the odor and taste. Flowers greenish yellow. Bracts of the umbels from 4 to 6, linear- lanceolate. Ovules £-10 in each cell of the ovary.

M. marit/ima Watson. This is found in the interior of the state and along the coast, frequently growing in alkaline soil. The flowers have a delicate perfume.

m. BLOOME'RIA, Golden Stars

Perianth of 6 nearly equal, spreading divisions ; light orange, with a dark midnerve of 2 closely parallel lines. Pedicels jointed under the perianth. Stamens 6, with slender filaments near It/ as long as the perianth, each, at base, at- tached to a short 2-toothed, hairy appendage ; these uniting to form a cup at the base of the perianth. Ovules several in each cell of the ovary.

B. au'rea Kellogg. GOLDEN BLOOMERIA, GOLDEN STARS. Bulb small, densely covered with brownish fibers. Flowers usually nu- merous in the umbel. Capsule beaked with the persistent style.- From Monterey to San Diego, and abundant wherever found.



Corm coated with brownish fibers (sometimes tissue-like), flat on the bottom when the old part is removed. Leaves generally withering soon. Pedicels of various lengths, jointed under the perianth. Flowers withering and persisting, white, blue-purple, rose-color, yellow, or scarlet ; in shape tubular, rotate, or funnel-form. Stamens in 2 sets, 3 or 6, attached to the tube of the perianth, often with wing-like appendages on the filaments ; when 3, alternating with petal-like staminodia. (Staminodia are filaments, usually broadened, without anthers.)

(There are 5 subgenera which Professor Greene regards as genera; so, to avoid confusion, the species are arranged under the subgenera.)


SUBGENUS DICHELOSTEM'MA. Perianth tubular, 3 stamens with erect anthers and wing-like appendages on each side of the filaments, the other 3 free or reduced to staminodia.

a. B. capita'ta Benth. GRASS NUTS, BRODI^A, WILD HYA- CINTH (often incorrectly WILD ONIONS). Flowers blue-purple (rarely white), in a close umbel, like a head. Bracts of the invo- lucre membranous, dark purple. Stamens with anthers 6, the inner anthers nearly sessile with wing-like appendages, the outer free, on short filaments; the appendages of the inner anthers form a crown in the throat of the perianth. This is abundant and widely distributed. The children eat the bulbs and call them " grass nuts."

b. B. volu'bilis Baker (Strophilir'ion). TWINING HYACINTH. Perianth rose-color, with a 6-angled tube nearly as long as the divisions. Three stamens with anthers and wing-like appendages, 3 emarginate staminodia. Scape long, twining snake-like around other stems. The color of the flowers and shape of the umbel might lead one to suppose this a wild onion. It is common in the foothills of the Sierras and is found also in the Coast Mountains.

c. B. coccin'ea Gray (Brevoor'tia). FIRECRACKER FLOWER. Perianth with a scarlet tube nearly an inch long, and 6 short and broad green divisions. Three stamens with icing-like appendages, 3 staminodia. The staminodia and appendages are yellow. The scape is long and wavy, but not twining. These brilliant flowers hang, as if too heavy to stand erect on their slender pedicels. Northern California.

SUBGENUS HOOK'ERA. Perianth tubular-funnel-shaped with a spreading border. Flowers purplish blue, lighter colored at base, thick in texture. Pedicels unequal. Stamens 3, with erect anthers alternating with 3 petal-like staminodia.

d. B. grandiflo'ra Smith. Scape