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J^roTvtispiece . S ee 236\

Jl Slavy li'czrfp..

A

NATURAL ARRANGEMENT

OF

BRITISH PLANTS,

ACCORDING TO THEIR RELATIONS TO EACH OTHER,

AS POINTED OUT BY

JUSSIEU, DE CANDOLLE, BROWN, &c.

INCLUDING

THOSE CULTIVATED FOR USE;

WITH

AN INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY,

IN WHICH THE TERMS NEWLY INTRODUCED ARE EXPLAINED ILLUSTRATED BY FIGURES.

BY

SAMUEL FREDERICK GRAY,

Lecturer on Botany, the Materia Medica, and Pharmaceutic Chemistry,

VOL. I.

LONDON:

PRINTED FOR BALDWIN, CRADOCK, AND JOY,

PATERNOSTER-ROW.

182L

(t _ __ "Wag every faultering tongue of man, Almighty Father, silent in thy praise,

Thy works themselves would raise a general voice,

Ev’n in the depths of solitary woods.

By human foot untrod; proclaim thy power,

And to the choir celestial Thee resound,

Th’ eternal Cause, Support, and End of all.”

Thomson, —Shimmer.

Baldwin, Printer, Mew Bridge-street, London.

<?7 m

IS? 2,1

V. I

SChlUf^M

TO

THE MOST REVEREND

CHARLES,

BY DIVINE PROVIDENCE,

LORD ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY, PRIMATE OF ALL ENGLAND, AND METROPOLITAN, THIS WORK IS DEDICATED BY HIS GRACE’S

MOST DEVOTED AND HUMBLE SERVANT,

THE AUTHOR.

Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow 5 4hey toil not, neither do they spin : and yet I say unto you, that even Solomon, in all his glory, was not arrayed like one of these.”

Jesus in Matthew.

PREFACE.

A VARIETY of methods have been adopted by authors for the arrangement of plants, in order that the knowledge mankind possesses of them may be more readily communi- cated to students in botany. The ancient authors consi- dered only the uses of plants, and arranged them accord- ingly into timber or fruit trees, corn, pulse, culinary and medicinal plants, those used for dyeing, for garlands, for spinning or other mechanical purposes, and the like; while, as a kind of supplementary knowledge, those whose pro- perties rendered them deleterious to man himself or to the animals bred or domesticated by him were considered under the title of poisons; and those which impeded the growth of the plants cultivated by him were arranged under the general name of weeds ; while the great mass of vegetables, to which neither usefulness nor harm could be attributed, were slighted, and indeed entirely neglected, unless any of them presented a phenomenon that struck forcibly on the attention, as the apparently sensitive property of the mimosa, or the water-dropping faculty of the nepenthes distillatoria. Succeeding authors have been more philosophically inclined, and have wished to bestow an equal degree of attention upon all the productions of the Almighty Creator, to the end that those now esteemed as useless may be pointed out for future investigation. The botanists of this school have given us general or local catalogues of plants, arranged either in the alphabetic order of their names, or according to the periodical time of their flowering, or partly from the whole period of their growth in the open air and partly from the contrivances they require to produce an artificial

VI

PREFACE.

temperature similar to that of their native climates. None of these arrangements, however, afford any means by which a student, in possession of a plant unknown to him, can discover its situation in the catalogue; and, of course, he is necessitated to have recourse for this purpose to the instruction of a living master, who may not always be at hand.

With the view, therefore, of enabling a solitary student to refer an unknown plant to its congeners, Lobel discarded every other consideration than the structure of plants, par- ticularly of their flowers, that being the period when they principally attract our attention. On this foundation, he investigated the natural affinities of plants to each other, and arranged those known to him in between forty and fifty families, beginning with the grasses ; and gave a list of those belonging to each family, but without determining any common character by which the plants of each family may be known; leaving this decision, in respect to the plants not noticed by him, to the intelligence and acumen of the student, Csesalpinus, Ray, Tournefort, Hermann, Boerhaave, and other authors, who were trained in the schools of logic and of the mathematics, have endeavoured to supply this deficiency, and to exhibit the marks or characters by which the several natural families may be recognized, and have further attempted to arrange these families in a regular series, so that the student, instead of relying upon his own conceptions of the affinity of a plant with those known to him, may, from a consideration of its structure when in a perfect state, x’efer it to its proper famity, and ascertain its name if already known, or have, in the other case, a well grounded assurance that it has not hitherto been described or named by authors.

The first scientific botanists, in consequence of their attempts to employ none but very obvious characters, could only attain their end by using a multiplicity of them, and this necessitated an intricate arrangement. Succeeding authors attempted simpler methods, by choosing a few par-

PREFACE.

Vll

ticular organs, common to the greater part of plants; and collecting together, in classes and subdivisions, the several plants which agreed in respect to the structure or number of these chosen organs, without any regard to the affinity a more accurate observation of the whole structure of the plant might develope. Of these mere artificial methods, as they are termed, Rivinus, professor at Leipzig, was the introducer, and he took his primary divisions from the regularity or irregularity of the corolla, or what is com- monly called the bloom, and the number of parts into which it is cut, and subdivided each of these primary divisions in a uniform manner, according to the nature of the fruit. In this system he was followed by Hebenstreit, Knaut, Ludwig, and Ruppius. The botanists of this school considered the method of Rivinus in its proper light, as being merely a ready means of determining the family, or what is now called the genus, to which any plant belongs ; and, therefore, contented themselves with following it up to that point, leaving the further knowledge of plants to be sought for in the authors who have arranged their works by the natural affinities of plants, or other considerations.

The want of the power of locomotion, by which plants are most evidently distinguished from the generality of animals, and the consequent inability of approaching each other, if the organs of reproduction were seated in distinct individuals and the analogy of animal generation strictly observed, while, at the same time, they are, from the same immobility, liable to a variety of accidents, which animals elude by the power of changing their place, rendered necessary the adoption of peculiar contrivances to preserve and multiply the species in which some analogy may be observed with those of animals, more apparent however than real.

The prurient mind of Linnaeus, so visibly exhibited in his mode of describing bivalve shells, was struck by the great difference between animals and vegetables in this respect; and he immediately applied himself to arrange

Vlll

PREFACE.

plants by those organs that appear to be analogous in their functions to the sexual organs of animals. Assuming the flowering of plants to be what he poetically terms their nuptials, he likened each separate flower to a bridal cham- ber, and formed his primary divisions from the number of the male organs present in each flower, and his subdivisions were formed from the number of the female organs which were also present in the same chamber : the Omniscient Creator having lessened the chances of failure arising from the immobility of plants by multiplying the points of union, and increasing the number of the organs, especially of the male. As Linnaeus considered not only the number of these organs, but in many cases their situation, connection, and proportion, he has departed from the simplicity which ought to form the basis of an artificial system and was so strictly observed by Rivinus, and has rendered his system as intricate as some of those who endeavoured to place kindred plants together. His successor in the chair at Upsal, Thunberg, has therefore endeavoured to simplify his method, but with considerable opposition. While Ludwig, in the second edition of his Genera, and Hill, along with the primary divisions of Rivinus taken from the corolla employed those of Linnaeus for their subdivisions, but have not met with any followers.

The novelty of the Linnaean method, the distinction of the species being always taken from the variations to be observed in the plant itself, together with the industry of Linnaeus and his followers in extending his catalogue, and forming, as it were, a new science, that of the nomenclature of plants, instead of the old botany, which, as we have said, principally devoted itself to the uses of plants, all contributed to give an eclat to his system, and to extend its influence beyond its proper limits. So that instead of being taught to use this method only as a finder, or as an index to the authors who wrote on the natural history of plants, the student was led to believe that this was the only arrange- ment that ought to be adopted in all works that treat of

PREFACE.

IX

plants: and there have not been wanting authors who have even written works upon gardening, or the materia medica, arranged on the Linneean system.* This undue extension of the sexual method is contrary even to the declared opinion of Linnaeus himself, who expressly says, he con- sidered it only as a temporary substitute until the natural method, or that which considers the mutual affinities of plants, be so far improved as to admit of a clue being ap- plied to it, by which the student may investigate the place of a plant in the method without any other help.

* Thus the Linnasan botanists committed the same error as the gram- marians and the philologers have frequently done in the composition of dictionaries, vocabularies, and etymologicons, from not considering the different uses of the various methods. Some interpreting dictionaries are arranged by roots, as those of Scapula, Mair, Salmon, and for most of the Oriental languages, to the great hindrance of the young student ; while, on the other hand, Gesner, Johnson, the Della Crusca, and the French Academy, have given us critical dictionaries, in the alphabetical order of the words, and have thus deprived themselves of the great help they might have deduced from the method of the roots, or the vocabulary form.

If these authors had reflected upon the subject, instead of blindly follow- ing the track of some preceding author, who had perhaps a different object in view, they would certainly have discovered that, for interpreting an unknown language into a known, the alphabetic order either of the initial or terminal letters was indeed the most proper, because the letters of the word are, by hypothesis, the only guide. Whether the initial letters, as used in most clises, or the terminal, as adopted in the Coptic dictionaries, be the most proper, may admit of some dispute, the latter has the advantage of exhibiting the sense attached to the various terminations more clearly than the former. When the words of a known language are used to find the corresponding words in one that is unknown, the vocabulary form has the advantage of bringing together all those words that would denote nearly similar ideas. Whether this form, or the alphabetic order be adopted, this is the proper part of a double interpreting dictionary, to produce examples from the classic writers in the less known tongue, as authority for the use of those words; and not, as was absurdly done by Ainsworth, in the unknown known part, since, in reading a foreign work, the context will enable the reader to choose the proper signification if the word be ambiguous; whereas, in writing a foreign language, we have occasion for examples to guide us in our choice of nearly synonymous words. The utility of the method of roots, for a critical dictionary, and the difficulty of using one on this plan for interpretation, is surely self-evident.

X

PREFACE.

Linnaeus, considering only the external appearance of the flower and fruit, despaired of finding this clue; but the favourers of the older arrangements have bestowed so much attention in examining the internal organization of plants, particularly of the fruit and seed, and various organs, which were neglected by the Linnsean nomenclators, that this desirable point is now attained. The present work exhibits the results of the latest investigations into the mutual affinities of plants; and the synopsis of the subdivisions attached to the several divisions furnishes a clue which will enable a student to trace the connexion of the several parts, and their dependence upon each other. When the author considered the great pains which had been taken with many of the families, and especially with those, which, from their not plainly exhibiting the sexual organs, were huddled together by Linnaeus in his twenty-fourth class, which contains probably far more plants than all his other twenty-three classes put together; and that there had not yet appeared in this country any detailed account of these researches, he was led to engage in preparing this system for the use of the English students of this delightful species of knowledge.

An essential difference exists between the mere deter- mination of the name of plants, and the study of their affinities to each other. The nomenclature of plants re- quires the study of so many only of their organs, and such a slight consideration of these as may suffice to determine the difference that may exist betwixt any two plants that might otherwise be confounded. The scientific study of their affinities requires, on the contrary, the whole of their organization to be kept in view, and the changes it may undergo during their natural life; hence there arises a necessity for a more accurate discrimination of the various forms of their organs than is required for the nomenclature only. The botanists of the natural school have, therefore, been led to invent a far greater number of terms than were introduced into use when Linnaeus wrote his Philosophia

PREFACE.

XI

Botanica. Whatever opinion may be entertained of the necessity of increasing the number of substantives to denote the several organs, and their principal variations, instead of using the old substantives with the addition of appropriate adjectives to limit their signification, yet as these new sub- stantives are used by the greatest part of modern authors, and have not yet been explained in our language, there appeared a necessity of prefixing an introduction to botany, principally for the purpose of giving a connected view of the anatomy of vegetables, according to the latest views of Mirbel, De Candolle, and other eminent botanists. The figures annexed to this part of the work have been very carefully selected, with a view of comprising as much information as possible in a small compass.

In consequence of the addition of this introduction, this work contains all that is necessary for the student of English botany, unless he is desirous of verifying his first steps in the science by a reference to the figures of plants. The very high price of Sowerby’s English Botany, which is seldom to be procured for less than fifty guineas, rendering it inaccessible to the generality of students, it has been judged preferable to refer to Gerarde’s Herbal as edited by Johnson, and the Theatre of Parkinson, either of which may be purchased at a very moderate price; and their figures, although only wood cuts, will give a good idea of the plants. Some may prefer the figures of those parts only which characterize the genera, and of these the cheapest is Tournefort?s Institutiones Rei herbarise, whose genera in general correspond with those of Ray. But these helps desert the student when he attempts the study of the plants which were called by the ancient botanists, on account of their not bearing flowers, imperfect plants ; and by Linnaeus, because he could not detect in them the presence of the sexual organs, which his preconceived opinion required to be present in all plants, cryptogamia, that is to say, secret marriages. Should the student en- deavour to penetrate this, the higher botany, and wish for

Xll

PREFACE.

the help of figures, he will require either the Historia Muscorum of Dillenius, the Hydrophyta Danica of Lyng- bye, the System der Pilze und Schwamm of Esenbeck, or Sowerby’s English Fungi, according to his peculiar views.

With the view of assisting those students who have been accustomed to use the Linnaean mode of investigating plants, there is prefixed to the second volume, which contains the perfect, or phenogamous, plants, an analytical guide to the families, according to the number of the sexual organs.

It remains then only to say a few words respecting the index. In general, the Latin generic names only have been quoted, but when a genus contains a great number of species, as agaricus, lichen, conferva, rosa, juncus, and some others, the trivial names are referred to, or the second word of the specific difference, if the plant had no name given to it by the old botanists. In a few cases, when the second word was an adjective, agreeing not with the generic name, but with a following substantive, this adjective is omitted, and the governing substantive inserted, as bryum perangustis crebrioribus foliis, &c. of Dillenius in Ran Synopsis, is referred to in the index under Bryum foliis.

As to English names, a considerable number of new ones have, for the sake of system, been given to the genera of plants; in forming the majority of which, the form and fashion of our ancient names have been as closely adhered to as was possible ; but, in some instances, Anglicized Latin names are used : these, however, ought to be regarded as only temporary. In regard to the manner in which com- pound English names are inserted in an index, a considerable difference is observable in authors. Some few insert them as they are spoken, as plough mans’ spike nard under P, evening prim rose under E. Other authors seem to consider spike nard and prim rose as generic names, and place them under S and P. Some carelessly insert them without any regular rule, so that a person is frequently obliged to search for all the words of which a name is composed before he finds the reference. To avoid this, a general rule has been

PREFACE.

xiii

laid down, and they are inserted under their last word, even when the composition is not apparent at first sight, as tur-nep, the nep which is round as if turned in a lathe, so pars-nep, that which from its size requires to be chopped or divided into parts to fit it for eating, as schoolboys are said to parse their lessons, when they divide them gram- matically. Pars-ley is, by an error only referred to under ley. It signifies an herb to be chopped, alluding to its use in sauces and stuffing. The ley being only another spell- ing of lea, grass, as in the song

Over the water and over the lea ;

but, in parsley, is used for herb, as Virgil, on the contrary, uses herba for grass

In raolli consedimus herbti. Buc. 3, 55.

An index of the authors mentioned in the Introduction, and a very copious index of the botanical terms, are sub- joined to the first volume. It was at first intended to omit the references to those terms which are self-evident to an English reader, but, spon considering that foreigners might have occasion to ascertain their meaning, they have been inserted, omitting however those English terms which vary but slightly in their termination from the corresponding Latin terms.

I have now to return my thanks for the kind assistance 1 have received, and particularly to A. B. Lambert, R.A. Salisbury, and A. H. Haworth, Esqrs. Messrs. E. and J. Bennett, and Mr. Deer. The death of Sir Joseph Banks, during the printing, has, to my great regret, prevented me from a similar acknowledgement, as a slight return for the many advantages I have received from the use of his Library and Herbari um : and has also been a cause of great delay, in being obliged to wait the arrival of another copy of Esenbeck’s work from Germany, that those interesting- plants the fungi might be arranged according to the latest improvements.

Principle, genus herbarium, vindemque nitorem,

Terra dedit circum colleis ; camposque per omneis Florida fulserunt viridanti prata colore :

Arboribusque datum est variis exinde per auras Crescundi magnum immissis certamen habenis.

Ut pluma atque pilei primum, setaeque, creantur Quadrupedum membris, et corpore pennipotentum ;

Sic nova turn tellus Iierbas, virgultaque, primum Substulit ; inde loci mortalia corda creavit,

Multa, modis multis, varia ratione, coorta.

Lucretius, V. 781 790„

THE GENERA OF BRITISH PLANTS,

According- to their mutual relations , with the number of species in each genus.

PLANTS CELLULOSiE.

C. 39. Jania .................

. , 8

1 A. Pl. cell, aphyllele.

40. Corailina ............

3

I). 41 . Zonaria

o « SU

1. Hydrophytes.

42. Dicfyofa .. .

A.

1. Vaginaria ............ .

. i

43. Diciyopteris. ...... .. . ,

.. i

2. Oscillatoria ......

E. 44. Asperococcus ........

.. 1

3. Humidp,

. 3

45. Ulva

. . 12.

4. Elisa

. 9

46. Scvtosiphon

.. §

5. itivuiaria ,

. 4

47. Pal me! la

.. 2

6. Sevtonema

. 5

48. Merretia

.. 4

'll.

7. Girard ia . .

. 2

49. Olivia...........

C.

8. Lemania ..........

. 2

F. 50. Carrodorus. ..

.. I

D.

9. Bryopsis.

. 5

51. Nosloc

. . 1

10. Vaucheria. . . . ...

.13

G. 52. Alcvonidium ........

... I

11. Codium ......... o .... .

2

53. Ephidatia

.. 1

E.

12. Frag ill an a

. 3

54. Spongiila . ..

.. 8

13. Biddulphia ............

. 3

H. 55. Tupha

. . 13

14, Diatoma ........ ....

. 4

56. Scypba ..

.. 9

F.

15. Zygneaia

. 2

57. Spongia, . ....... .. .. .

10. Gnnjiip-ala

. 7

58, Tetbya . . . ...

. . '$

17. Choaspis

|

I. 59. Deles3eria ............

. .. 5

. 18. Agardhia

. 1

60, Odontbalia ... ...

.. 1

19. Serpentinaria .........

. 2

63. Spha?roeoccus

. .15

G.

20. Hvdrodictyon

. 1

62. Gigartina ............

PL

21. Chaetophora .......... .

. 1

63. Gastridium ..........

. .is

22. Leathfsia

. 1

K. 64 Fascia, fa .. .

.23. Myriodactylon. ...... ..

. 2

65. Laminaria............

4

24. Draparnaldia .........

o

66. Phasgonon ..........

2

.25. Conferva

.55

67. Chorda

2

68. Chordaria

2. Thalassiophytee.

69. Sporochnus ..........

A.

. 26. Mesogloja

. 1

70. Desmarestia

.. 2

27. Bulbochcete

. 1

7 3. Lichina

.. 8

28. Ectocarpns

. 6

72. Himanfhalia

.. 1

29. Callithamnion .........

.17

73. Cervina

.. i

30. Ceram ium

. 3

74. Fucus....

31. GrifStsia. ............. .

. 3

75. Haiidrys

32. Borrichius

. 1

76. Mackaia

33. Batrachospermum . . . . .

. 2

77. Baccalaria. . . .. ,

... 2

B.

34. Cladostephus

. 3

78. Siliquaria

.. 1

35. Sphacelaria

79. Furcellaria

.. 1

36. Ellisius

2

37. Hutchinsia

.17

3. Homothalameec.

38. Yertebrata, ...........

A, 80, Placynthium. ........

... I

XV

GENERA

81. Enchylium 11

82. Scytenium 1

83. Mallotium 2

84. Lathagrium 4

85. Leptogilnn 3

86. Polychidium 6

B. 87. Usnea 3

C. 88. Cornicularia 6

89. Ramalina 4

90. Alectoria 3

4. Cenothulamcce.

A. 91. Stereocaulon 2

92. Isidium 4

93. Baeotnvces 3

B. 94. Cerania . 1

95. Cladonia 6

96. Helopodiuin 2

97. Schasmaria 1

98. Scyphophora 17

99. Pyenothelia 1

C. 100. Evernia 1

D. 101. Roccella 3

102. Nephroma 2

103. Peltidea 8

104. Solorina 2

105. Siicta 8

106. Cetraria 6

107. Borrera 7

108. Physcia 2

109. Parmelia 31

E. 110. Psoroma 8

111. Placodium 9

112. Rinodina 35

113. Ureeolaria , . . 9

1 14. Lepidoma 1 1

115. Lecidea 58

F. 116. Gyrophora 9

G. 1 17. Arthonia 5

118. Spiloma 8

H. 119. Acolium 3

120. Phacotrum 11

121. Strongylium 3

5. Idiothalamece.

A. 122. Sphaerophoron 3

123. Rhizomorpha 11

B. 124. Variolaria 9

C. 125. Pyrenula 3

126. Thelotrema 3

127. Porina 2

D. 128. Lejophlea 4

129. Lithocia 0

130. Inoderma. 2

131. Endocarpon .13

E. 132. Gi aphis 8

133. Alyxoria 2

134. Hysterina 12

6. Sarcothalamece.

A. 135. Ac lid Sum 1

136. Hypoderma 6

137. Hysterium 3

B. 138. Xylaria...? 6

139. Hypoxylon 5

140. Peripherostoma 15

141. Poronia 1

142. Nemania ..21

143. Cucurbitaria 4

144. Engizostoma 6

145. Circinostoma 6

146. Exormatostoma 10

147. Astoma 21

148. Sphaeria 36

C. 149. Thelebolus 1

D. 150. Nemaspora 5

7. Protomycece.

A. 151. Rcestelia 5

152. iEcidium 21

153. Ustilago 3

154. Uredo 10

155. Albugo 3

156. Ccemurus 5

157. Dicaeoma 9

158. Puccinia 5

159. Podisoma 1

B. 160. Fusidium 3

161. Stilbospora 2

C. 162. Xyloma 5

D. 163. Gymnosporangium 1

E. 164. ASgerita 1

165. Fusarium 1

F. 166. Tubercularia 2

8. Nematomycece.

A. 167. Acremonium 2

168. Epochnium 1

169. Trichotliecium 1

170. Sporotrichum 5

171. Byssocladium 4

B. 172. Haplaria - 1

173. Acrosporium 1

174. Virgaria 2

175. Botrytis 1

176. Stachylidium 2

177. Polyactis 1

178. Penicillum 2

179. Aspergillus 4

C. 180. Erineum 1

181. Rubigo 3

D. 182. Cladosporium 1

183. Helmisporium 2

184. Heliocosporium 1

185. Monilia I

186. Torula 1

187. Racodium 1

188. Dematium 1

189. Byssus 1

190. Typhoderma 4

191. Xylostroma 1

E. 192. Trichoderma 2

GENERA. xvii

F. 193. Thumnidimn I

194. Mucor 5

195. Ascophora 2

196. Pilo bolus 1

G. 197. Ceratium 1

198. Isaria 3

199. Coremium 2

200 Cephalotrichurn 1

H. 201. Stilbuin 3

0. G-asteromgctee.

A. 202. Eurotium 1

203. vEthalium 1

204. Lignidium 1

205. Spumaria 1

206. Strongyliuin 1

207. Lycogala 4

B. 208. Myrotheciura 1

209. Dichosporum 1

210. I.icea 2

211. D-rmodium 2

C. 212. Didymium 3

213. Diderma 1

214. Ciouium 6

215. Physarum 7

216. Leangium 2

217. Leocarpus 2

D. 218. Trichia 8

219. Arcyria 5

E. 220. Cribaria 3

221. Dictydium 2

F. 222. Stemonitis 4

G. 223. Craterinm 3

224. Pyxidium 1

H. 225. Onygena 1

I. 226. Sphajrobolus 1

K. 227. Scleroderma 4

228. llypogaeum 1

229. Bovista 3

230. Lycoperdon 1

231. Geastrum 6

232. Polystoma 1

L. 233. Talostoma 1

M. 234. Polyangium 1

N. 235. Cyathus . 4

10. Sarcothececc.

A. 236. Erysibe 10

237. Thanatophytum 1

238. Sclerotiura 9

B. 239. Tuber 3

C. 240. Tremella 1

241. Gyraria 12

242. Coryne 2

1 1 . Hymenothecece .

A. 243. Amanita 8

244. Vaginata 3

245. Lepiota S

246. Gymnopus 36

247. Omphalia 18

VJQL. I,

248.

Pleuropus

249.

Crcpidopus

250.

Apus.

251.

Resupinatus

B. 252.

Russula

253.

Mycena

254.

Micrompliale

255.

Lac tar i us

C. 256.

Pratella

257.

Cortinaria .......

258.

Prunulus

259.

Coprinus

1). 260.

Asterophora

...... 1

E. 261.

Merulius

|

262.

Cantharellus

5

263.

Corniola .

2

264.

Serpula

...... 1

265.

Gompbus

F. 266.

Deedalea

G. 267.

Poria

268.

Boletus

269.

Grifola

270.

Coltricia

271.

Striglia

1

272.

Albatrellos

273.

Polyporus

1

H. 274.

Suillus

}

275.

Pinuzzus

276.

Lcccinum

277.

Fistulina

I. 278.

Sistotrema

279.

Cerrena

280.

Xylodon

K. 281.

llydnum

I

282.

Dentinum. .......

283.

Auriscalpium... .

1

284.

Steccherinum ....

3

285.

Odontia

286.

Hericium

1

L. 287.

Craterella

288.

Stereum

289.

Corticium

290.

Merisma

M. 291.

Corynoides

292.

Ramaria

293.

Clavaria

12

N. 294.

Geoglossum ......

295.

Mitrula

...... 2

296.

Leotia

297.

Helotium

3

298.

Relhanum

1

O. 299.

Morcliella

4

300.

Helvella

3

301.

Spathularia

P. 302.

Stictis

303.

Patellaria .......

504.

Peziza

305.

Octospora

,306.

Seodellina .......

......10

307.

Calycina

...... 5

308.

Dasyscyphus. . . . .

b

xviii GENERA.

309. Macroscyphus 8

310. Hyinenoscyphus 9

Q. 31 1. Ascobolus 1

12. Lytothecece.

312. Batarrea I

313. Ithyphallus 1

314. Phallus 2

1 B. Pl. cell, folios^e.

13. Hepatias,

A. 315. Riccia . . 5

B. 316. Targionia 1

317. Spiiserocarpus 1

C. 318. Anthoceros 3

D. 319. Marchantia. .......... . 2

320. Strozzius 2

321. Cyathophora 1

322. Staurophora 1

p. 323. Riccardius 3

324. Pallayicinips 2

325. Herverus . . . .. 2

326. Papa...... 1

327. Blasia 1

328. Maurocenius 1

329. Salviatus 3

330. Pandulphinius 4

331. Marchesinus 1

332. Cavendishia. . 2

333. Martinellius 9

334. Mylius .. 4

335. Nardius 3

336. Jungermannia 39

337. Bazzanius 1

338. Seal ins 1

339. Cesius... 1

340o Herbertus. ............ . I

341. Lippius I

342. Kantius. i

14. Musci,

343. Andrsea 4

344. Spagnum ............. . 4

345. Phascum 1 1

346. Schistostega. 1

347. Anictangium 2

348. Gymnostomum 14

349. Diphyscium 1

350. Tetraphis 2

351. Spiachnum 7

352. Conostomum 1

353. Polytrichum ^

354. Cinclidotus I

355. Tortula 1 1

356. Encalypta 3

357. Grimmia 7

358. Pterogonium 3

359. Weissia 18

360. Dicranum 24

361. Trichostornum 9

362. Leucodon 1

363. Didymodon. .......... . 8

364. Funaria 3

365. Zygodon J

366. Orthotrichum ......... ,l6

367. Neckera 2

368. Anomodon g

369. Daltonia ... 2

370. Fontinalis. 3

371. Buxbaumia 1

372. Bartramia 6

373. Hookeria 2

374. Hypnnm 60

375. Bryum ...2^

GENERA.

xix

2. PLANT/E ENDOGENiE. 2 A. Pl. end. cryptogams.

1. Filices.

A. 1. Osmund a 1

2. Cetcrach 1

B. 3 . Polypodium. 4

C. 4. Aspidium ....10

5. Cyclopteris 2

6. Athyrium 4

I). 7. Aspienium ..... 8

K. 8. Scolopendrium 1

F. 9. Blechmim ............. . 1

10. Stegania. 1

G. 11. Pteris 1

12. Adiantum 1

II. 13. Woodsia 1

14. Trichomanes 1

15. Hymenophyllmn ....... . 1

I. 16. Bostrichium ............ 3

K. 17. Ophioglossum 1

2. Lycopodiacece.

18. Lycopodium 5

19. Bernhardia ..... . . 2

20. Isoetes 1

3. Marsileaceee.

21. Pilularia 1

4. Equisetacece.

22. Equisetum ............. . 7

5. Charades.

23. Chara 5

2 B. Pl. end. phenogams.

6. Fluviatiles.

24. Zannicbellia 2

25. Ruppia 1

26. Potamogiton ...14

27. Zostera 1

7. Aroidecc.

28. Arum 1

7 *. Lemnadece.

28 * . Lemna 4

8. Typhacece.

29. Sparganium 2

30. Platanaria 1

31. Typha 3

9. Cyperacea.

A. 32. Carex 25

33. Trasus 34

34. Cobresia 1

B. 35. Cyperus 2

36. Gladhun ............... . 1

37. Cliaetospora 2

38. Rhyricospora 2

39. Sclioenus .............. . 2

C. 40. Scirpus ................. 1 1

41 . Eleocharis 2

42. Isolepis ............ 3

43. Trichophorum ......... . 1

44. Eriophorum ............ 5

10. Gr amines,.

A. 42*. Nardns I

43*.Qphiurus 2

44*.Hordeum 2

45. Zeocriton 5

46. Seeale 1

47. Elymus.. 3

48. Loliurn 3

49. Agropyrum 5

50. Triticum. .............. . 7

B. 51. Cynodon ............ 1

C. 52. Sclerochloa ............ . 1

53. Megastachya 1

54. Poa 20

55. Briza 3

56. Enodium 1

57. Melica. 2

58. Triodia 1

59. Brachypodium . ... 4

60. Schenodorus . 5

61. Zerna 5

62. Bromus 7

63. Festuca 10

64. Yulpia 3

65. Glyceria... 1

66. Dactylis 1

67. Kceleria. 1

68. Cynosurus 1

69. Sesleria 1

70. Chrysurus 1

D. 71, Aruud.o 1