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GENERAL CHAPTERS AND

TAXONOMICAL REVISIONS

———_—

COPWERIG Hails 9518

All rights reserved, including the right to reproduce this book or parts thereof in any form

RoE U Bab Vet ND ON ESA

REPUBLIC OFINDONESIA KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN » MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE

LORA MALESIANA

BEING

AN ILLUSTRATED SYSTEMATIC ACCOUNT OF THE MALAYSIAN FLORA,

INCLUDING KEYS FOR DETERMINATION, DIAGNOSTIC DESCRIPTIONS »

REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE, SYNONYMY + AND DISTRIBUTION, AND NOTES ON THE ECOLOGY OF

ITS WILD AND COMMONLY CULTIVATED PLANTS

PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE KEBUN RAYA INDONESIA, BOGOR, JAVA, BOTANIC GARDENS OF INDONESIA , BOGOR (BUITENZORG) AND OF THE RIJKSHERBARIUM , LEYDEN » NETHERLANDS

PREPARED ON AN INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATIVE BASIS UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF SEVERAL DIRECTORS OF BOTANIC GARDENS» KEEPERS OF HERBARIA AND VARIOUS PROMINENT BOTANISTS

FOR THE PROMOTION OF BOTANICAL SCIENCE AND THE CULTURAL ADVANCEMENT OF THE PEOPLES OF SOUTH-EASTERN ASIA TO THE SOUTHWEST PACIFIC REGION

SERIES I SPERMATOPHYTA

VOLUME 5

GENERAL EDITOR: DRC.G.G.J. VAN STEENIS

DIRECTOR OF THE FOUNDATION ‘FLORA MALESIANA’

PUBLISHED BY NOORDHOFEF-KOLFF N.V.» DJAKARTA 1955-1958

4 CONTENTS

TURUZ RESO GS ORE 9 EE Contents .

Dedication .

Abbreviations and signs .

GENERAL CHAPTERS

Annotated selected bibliography by C. G. G. J. van Steenis

Citation of serials and some books by M. J. van Steenis-Kruseman : Specific and infraspecific delimitation (with indices) by C. G. G. J. van Steenis . Cyclopaedia of collectors. Supplement (with index) by M. J. van Steenis-Kruseman

TAXONOMICAL REVISIONS in alphabetical sequence,

Alismataceae by C. den Hartog Basellaceae by C. G. G. J. van Steenis Batidaceae by P. van Royen Betulaceae by C. G. G. J. van Steenis

Burseraceae by P. W. Leenhouts, in collaboration with C. Kalkman and H. J. Lam .

Butomaceae by C. G. G. J. van Steenis . Centrolepidaceae by Ding Hou

Connaraceae by P. W. Leenhouts.

Dichapetalaceae by P. W. Leenhouts .

Erythroxylaceae by J. P. D. W. Payens . Flacourtiaceae by H. Sleumer .

Goodeniaceae by P. W. Leenhouts ; Haemodoraceae by C. G. G. J. van Steenis . Hamamelidaceae by W. Vink .

Hydrocharitaceae by C. den Hartog .

Malpighiaceae by M. Jacobs : Papaveraceae by C. G. G. J. van Steenis Pentaphylacaceae by C. G. G. J. van Steenis é Pittosporaceae by K. Bakker & C. G. G. J. van Steenis Proteaceae by H. Sleumer .

Restionaceae by K. Bakker

Rhizophoraceae by Ding Hou .

Salicaceae by M. Jacobs : Scyphostegiaceae by C. G. G. J. van Steenis

ADDENDA to volumes 4 and 5

Addenda, corrigenda, et emendanda by C. G. G. J. van Steenis and collaborators . INDEX

Index to scientific plant names by M. J. van Steenis-Kruseman

553

571

i

Dedicated to the memory of A.A. PULLE

DEDICATION

The completion of the fifth volume of this Flora brings the pleasant task of dedicating it to the memory of my former teacher in systematic botany, the late professor doctor August Adriaan Pulle, of Utrecht University.

As I have explained on a former occasion, descriptive botany and plant geography had since Miquel’s time lost a great deal of attention and recognition. It is largely due to Pulle that scientia amabilis in Holland owes its remarkable réveil.

Stimulated in his turn by his teacher, our common, venerated professor of general botany, F. A. F. C. Went, who never failed to interest his pupils in tropical botany, Pulle focussed his attention first on the flora of Surinam and later on that of New Guinea. Through personal exploration in both countries he acquired an excellent field knowledge. Owing to his ability as an organizer and editor, and to long sustained hard work, his efforts gradually led to increased publication facilities. He soon gave up his own research work in favour of organizing the her- barium and library at Utrecht, and of his teaching, and succeeded gradually in attracting capable students for various sections of plant taxonomy and geography. His tolerant, sympa- thetic personality, his convivial students’ excursions in Holland and abroad, and his versatile and wide knowledge created a most agreeable working sphere in his laboratory. He varied the subject of his capita selecta for advanced graduates regularly: the course on plant sociology led D. M. de Vries to initiate practical plant sociology in Holland, that on phytopalaeontology led R. G. Koopmans to a thesis on the Netherlands carboniferous flora and stimulated F. Florschiitz to initiate a centre for practical palynology of the Netherlands Pleistocene. Pulle’s main achieve- ment materialized in raising a school of systematists, including the large majority of present Netherlands taxonomists who have jointly made research on the floras of Holland, the West, and the East Indies. The centre of research on the West Indies remained at Utrecht and found its expression in the Flora of Suriname; the centre for the East Indies was shared by the Bogor and Leyden herbaria. But he kept a vigilant eye on both all the time and in his most excellent address at the opening of the enlarged Utrecht Herbarium and Museum in 1938 he dwelt at length on “De inventarisatie van het erfdeel der vaderen’ (The inventory of our heritage).

Before I went to Bogor I was invited by Went and Pulle to a private talk on the subject of the future outline, coordination, and development of the work on the Malaysian flora for which they suggested in a general way that I should consider a very gradual planning of a final, regional Flora, with the emphasis on gradual as I had first to acquire a large pre-knowledge for this task. Neither of my wise tutors believed in ad hoc planning of long-range scientific objectives. In this way Pulle and Went can be considered as the mental progenitors of the initiative towards the present work. They were ultimately responsible for the magnificent body of biological research work performed by the best of their students in the former colonies. It is their everlasting monument, and our pride.

It is due to their education and wisdom that botany in the Netherlands has developed harmoniously, in both the descriptive and experimental fields. Their pupils who are now in leading positions have been impregnated with this ideal and will maintain it. This satisfactory situation of mutual appreciation has been decisive, I feel, for the joyful news just received that my country will be the first official body to grant funds to cope with the financial emergency with which our Foundation was confronted recently. I trust that this emergency will be tempo- rary and that the Governments in the immense Malaysian area will appreciate the basic value of this Flora for the development of pure and applied botany for their peoples and will take a liberal share in the project.

C. G. G. J. VAN STEENIS

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cre 4

Oey

ABBREVIATIONS AND SIGNS

acc. = according

Ak. Bis. = Aklan Bisaya (Philip. language) Alf. Cel. = Alfurese Celebes (language) alt. = altitude

Anat. = Anatomy

Ap. = Apayao (Philip. language)

app. = appendix, appendices

appr. = approximate

Apr. = April

Arch. = Archipelago

atl. = atlas

auct. div. = auctores diversi; various authors

auct(t). mal. = auctores malayenses; authors dealing with Malaysian flora

auct(t). plur. = auctores plures; several authors

Aug. = August

Bag. = Bagobo (Philip. language)

basionym = original name of the type specimen; its epithet remains permanently attached to the taxon which is typified by it provided it is of the same rank

Bg = Buginese (language)

Bik. = Bikol (Philip. language)

Bil. = Bila-an (Philip. language)

Bill. = Billiton

Bis. = Bisaya (Philip. language)

Bon. = Bontok (Philip. language)

Born. = Borneo

Bt = Bukit; mountain

Bug. = Buginese (language)

Buk. = Bukidnon (Philip. language)

c. = circiter; about

C. Bis. = Cebu Bisaya (Philip. language)

cf. = confer; compare

Chab. = Chabecano (Philip. language)

citations = see references

cm = centimetre

c.n. = see comb. nov.

comb. nov. = combinatio nova; new combination

c.s. = cum suis; with collaborators

cum fig. = including the figure

cur. = curante; edited by

D (after a vernacular name) = Dutch

Daj. = Dyak (language)

Dec. = December

D.E.I. = Dutch East Indies

descr. added behind a reference = means that this contains a valid description. Compare for example p. 107a lines 7 & 8 from bottom where the combination Salix zollingeriana, originally referred to as a nomen nudum, was 5 years later provided with a description; nomenclaturally the date of publication is that of its valid description

diam. = diameter

Distr. (as an item) = Distribution

Distr. (with a geographical name) = District

ditto = the same, see do

Div. = Division

diy. = diversus (masc.) = various

do = ditto (Ital.); the same

Dum. = Dumagat (Philip. language)

dupl. = duplicate

E = east (after degrees: eastern longitude)

E (after a vernacular name) = English Ecol. = Ecology ed. = edited; edition; editor

e.g. = exempli gratia; for example elab. = elaboravit; revised

em. = emendavit; emended em(erg). ed. = emergency edition

Engl. = English

etc., &c. = et cetera; and (the) other things

ex auctt. = ex auctores; according to authors

excl. = exclusus (masc.); excluding, exclusive of

f. (before a plant name) = forma; form

f. (after a personal name) = filius; the son

f. (in citations) = figure

fam. = family

Feb. = February

fide = according to

fig. = figure

fl. = flore, floret ( floruit); (with) flower, flowering

For. Serv. = Forest Service

fr. = fructu, fructescit; (with) fruit, fruiting

Fr. (after a vernacular name) = French

G. = Gunung (Malay); mountain

Gad. = Gaddang (Philip. language)

gen. = genus; genus

genus delendum = genus to be rejected, see p. 3446 Lemairea

Germ. = German

geront. = Old World

haud = not, not at all

holotype = the specimen on which the original description was actually based or so designated by the original author

homonym = a name which duplicates the name of an earlier described taxon (of the same rank) but which is based on a different type species or type specimen; all later homonyms are nomenclaturally illegitimate, unless conserved

ib(id). = ibidem; the same, in the same place

Ibn. = Ibanag (Philip. language)

ic. = icon, icones; plate, plates ic. inedit. = icon ineditum, icones inedita; inedited plate(s)

id. = idem; the same

i.e. = id est; that is

If. = Ifugao (Philip. language)

Ig. = Igorot (Philip. language)

Ilg. = Ilongot (Philip. language)

lk. = Iléko (Philip. language)

in adnot. = in adnotatione; in note, in annotation

incl. = including, inclusive(ly); inc/usus (masc.)

indet. = indetermined

Indr. = Indragiri (in Central Sumatra)

inedit. = ineditus (masc.); inedited

in herb. = in herbario; in the herbarium

in litt. = in litteris; communicated by letter

in sched. = in schedula; on a herbarium sheet

in sicc. = in sicco; in a dried state

in syn. = in synonymis; in synonymy

Is. = Isindi (Philip. language)

Isl. = Islands

Ism. = Isamal (Philip. language)

isotype = a duplicate of the holotype; in arboreous plants isotypes have often been collected from

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FLORA MALESIANA

a single tree, shrub, or liana from which the holotype was also derived

Iv. = Ivatan (Philip. language)

J(av). = Javanese (language)

Jan. = January

Jr = Junior

Klg. = Kalinga (Philip. language)

Kul. = Kulaman (Philip. language)

Kuy. = Kuyonon ( Philip. language)

Lamp. = Lampong Districts (in S. Sumatra)

Lan. = Lanao (Philip. language)

lang. = language

l.c. = loco citato; compare reference

lectotype = the specimen selected a posteriori from the authentic elements on which the taxon was based when no holotype was designated or when it is lost

livr. = livraison, part

lice. cs (plurs)

m = metre

M = Malay (language)

Mag. = Magindanao (Philip. language)

Mak. = Makassar, Macassar (in SW. Celebes)

Mal. = Malay(an)

Mal. Pen. = Malay Peninsula

Mand. = Mandaya (Philip. language)

Mang. = Mangyan (Philip. language)

Mar. = March

Mbo = Manobo (Philip. language)

Md = Madurese (language)

Minangk. = Minangkabau (a Sumatran language)

min. part = pro minore parte; for the smaller part

mm = millimetre

Mng. = Mangguangan (Philip. language)

ms(c) = manuscript

Mt(s) = Mount(ains)

N = north (after degrees: northern latitude); or New (e.g. in N. Guinea)

NE. = northeast

nec = not

neerl. = Netherlands, Netherlands edition

Neg. = Negrito (Philip. language)

N.E.I. = Netherlands East Indies

neotype = the specimen designated to serve as nomenclatural type when no authentic speci- mens have existed or when they have been lost; a neotype retains its status as the new type as long as no authentic elements are recovered and as long as it can be shown to be satisfactory in accordance with the original description or figure of the taxon

N.G. = New Guinea

N.I. = Netherlands Indies

no = number

nom. = nomen; name (only) = nomen nudum

nom. al. = nomen aliorum; name used by other authors

nom. al.(ern). = nomen alternativum; alternative name

nom. cons(erv). = nomen conservandum, nomina

conservanda; generic name(s) conserved by the International Rules of Botanical Nomenclature

nom. fam. cons. = nomen familiarum conservan- dum; conserved family name

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nom. gen. cons. prop. = nomen genericum conser- vandum propositum; generic name proposed for conservation

nom. illegit. = nomen illegitimum; illegitimate

name nom. legit. = nomen legitimum; legitimate name nom. nov. = nomen nhovum; Dew name

nom. nud. = nomen nudum; name published

without description and without reference to previous publications

nom. rej. = nomen rejiciendum; name rejected by the International Rules of Botanical Nomen- clature

nom. seminudum = a name which is provided with some unessential notes or details which cannot be considered to represent a sufficient descrip- tion which is, according to the International Rules of Botanical Nomenclature, compulsory for valid publication of the name of a taxon. See for example p. 401a line 2

nom. subnudum = nomen seminudum

nom. superfl. = a name superfluous when it was published; in most cases it is a name based on the same type as an other earlier specific name. See for example p. 3426 lines 32 & 33 from top

non followed by author’s name and year, not placed in parentheses, and put at the end of a citation = means that this author has published the same name mentioned in the citation independently. These two (names) combinations are therefore homonyms. Compare p. 327 lines 15 & 16 from top; there are two independent genera of the name Lophiocarpus. Compare p. 310 lines 21 & 22 from bottom; there are two independent species described under the name Dichapetalum holopetalum, by MERRILL and by RUHLAND respectively

(non followed by abbreviation of author’s name) before a reference (citation) headed by an other author’s name = means that the second author has misinterpreted the taxon of the first author. Compare for example p. 339a under Scaevola sericea lines 9 & 10 where the citation means that BURMAN f/f. misapplied the name Lobelia plumieri, in other words wrongly identified the plant he had in hand with a species described by LINNAEUS

non al. = non aliorum; not of other authors

non vidi = not seen by the author

nov. = nova (femin.); new (species, variety, etc.)

Nov. = November

n.s. = new series

Nn. Sp. = nova species; new species

n. (sp.) prov. = nomen (specificum) provisorium; provisional new (specific) name

n.v. = non vidi; not seen

NW. = northwest

Oct. = October

op. cit. = opere citato; in the work cited p. = pagina; page

P. = Pulau, Pulu (in Malay); Island Pal(emb). = Palembang

Pamp. = Pampangan (Philip. language) Pang. = Pangasinan (Philip. language)

Abbreviations and signs

paratype = a specimen cited with the original description other than the holotype

part. alt. = for the other part

P. Bis. = Panay Bisaya (Philip. language)

P.J. = Philippine Islands

pl. = plate

plurim. = most

pr. max. p. = pro maxima parte; for the greater part

pro = as far as is concerned prob. = probabiliter; probably prop. = proposed

Prov. = Province p(r).p. = pro parte; partly pt = part

quae est = which is

quoad basionym, syn., specimina, etc. = as far as the basionym, synonym(s), specimen(s), efc. are concerned

references = see for abbreviations the list pp. cxlv-clxv

Res. = Residency

resp. = respective(ly)

S = south

S = Sundanese (language)

Sbl. = Sambali (Philip. language) SE. = southeast

sec. = secus; according to

sect. = sectio; section

sens. ampl. (ampliss.) = sensu amplo (amplissimo); in a wider sense, in the widest sense

sens. lat. = sensu lato; in a wide sense

sens. Str. (strictiss.) = sensu stricto (strictissimo); in the narrow sense, in the narrowest sense

Sept. = September

Seq., Seqq. = sequens, sequentia; the following

ser. = series

scl.) see sens. lat.

S.-L.Bis. = Samar-Leyte Bisaya (Philip. language)

Sml. = Samal (Philip. language)

S.n. = sine numero; (specimen) without the col- lector’s number

Sp. = Spanish (language)

sp(ec). = species; species

specim. = specimen(s)

sphalm. = sphalmate; by error, erroneous

Spp. = species; species (plural)

Sr = Senior

5.5. = see sens. Str.

ssp. = subspecies; subspecies

S.str. = see sens. Str.

Stat. nov. = status nova; proposed in a new rank Sub. = Subénum (Philip. language)

subgen. = subgenus; subgenus

subsect. = subsectio; subsection

subsp. = subspecies; subspecies

Sul. = Sulu (Philip. language)

Sum. E.C. = Sumatra East Coast Sum. W.C. = Sumatra West Coast Suppl. = supplementum; Supplement

SW. = southwest

syn. = synonymum; synonym synonyms = the names of taxa which have been referred to an earlier described taxon of the same rank and with which they have been

united on taxonomical grounds or which are bound together nomenclaturally

syntypes = the specimens used by the original author when no holotype was designed or more specimens were simultaneously designated as type

t. = tabula; plate

Tag. = Tagalog (Philip. language)

Tagb. = Tagbanua (Philip. language)

Tagk. = Tagaka-olo (Philip. language)

Tapan. = Tapanuli (in NW. Sumatra)

taxon = each entity throughout the hierarchic ranks of the plant kingdom which can be de- scribed and discriminated from other taxa of the same rank

Tg = Tandjung (Malay); cape

Ting. = Tinggian (Philip. language)

Tir. = Tirurai (Philip. language)

transl. = translated

type = each taxon above the rank of a species is typified by a type belonging to a lower rank, for instance a family by a genus, a genus in its turn by a species; a species or infraspecific taxon is typified by a specimen. The name of a taxon is nomenclaturally permanently attached to its type; from this it can not be inferred that the type always represents botanically the most typical or average structure found in the circumscription of the taxon

type specimen = the specimen or other element to which the name of a species or infraspecific taxon is (nomenclaturally) permanently attached; botanically a type specimen is a random specimen on which the name was based by description. Therefore, it does not need to represent the average or most typical re- presentative of a population. See holotype, isotype, lectotype, syntype, paratype, and neo- type

typ. excl. = typo excluso; type excluded

typ. incl. = typo incluso; type included

typus = see type and type specimen

var. = varietas; variety

var. nov. = varietas nova; new variety Vern. = Vernacular

vide = see

viz = videlicet; namely

vol. = volume

W = west

Yak. = Yakan (Philip. language)

-+ = about

& = and

3d = male (flower, etc.)

Q = female (flower, etc.)

® = bisexual (flower)

(3)(Q) = dioecious with unisexual flowers

(369) = monoecious with unisexual flowers

0) = polygamous

= polygamous

co = very many

> = diminishing (in size, number, efc.)

< = accrescent (size, number, efc.)

x 2/5 = 2/5 of natural size

x montana = means that the epithet montana is that of a hybrid

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ANNOTATED SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

page page I. General botanical handbooks... .. . v6. Flora of Malaysia proper ....... XIII 2. General and local botanical bibliographies . Vv auGeneral Works” (ies ones ee) et ene XII 3. Interpretation of early botanical works . VI DS EOCALiWOrlsin Mineo oetten eee et ae XV 4. Keys for identifying Malaysian plants. . vu c. Proper taxonomic bibliography, alpha- 5. Floras and botanical enumerations of betically arranged according to families xxv

neighbouring countries

In the absence of a complete bibliography of the botanical literature of Malaysia, comparable _ to those on Eastern Asia and the Pacific by MERRILL & WALKER, and as the ‘Flora Malesiana’ - will not to be completed within the near future, the need was felt to have at hand a concise, selected bibliography of existing revisions and other phytographical publications temporarily providing taxonomists with a reference to what is roughly available for the identification of Malaysian collections. When the ‘Flora Malesiana’ is completed, after some decades, this bibliog- raphy should no longer be required, as the references contained in it will all have been account- ed for in the Flora itself in one way or another.

In the meantime, however, a list arranged by families seems to serve a very practical purpose, as it gives access to the main body of accumulated knowledge precursory to the final revisions in the Flora.

This need is apparently felt in other regions, as during the course of this work, which was started about 1943, similar projects were undertaken for East Asia and the Pacific by MERRILL & WALKER and for India by SANTAPAU.

I agree with Dr WALKER that the use of such bibliographies is essentially facilitated by anno- tations indicating the contents. I have specially paid attention to the presence or absence of keys for identification. In some cases keys lead only to groups of species; I have called these “partial keys’.

MERRILL & WALKER’S bibliographies aimed at completeness. My object has been more limited and from the beginning I wanted to make it selective for two reasons. On the one hand an exhaustive bibliography would mean years of bibliographical research on which I cannot afford to spend part of the little time left for my scientific work. On the other hand my aim was more limited in that I felt that the need alluded to was focussed rather on a bibliographic guide, enabling rapid orientation in some family or genus, than on a complete bibliographic account. The desired concise data would be swamped in an ocean of detailed references in a really ex- haustive work.

The large detailed MS bibliography, which I have gradually compiled during the past twenty five years, is arranged by families and is not suitable for publication; but it will always be at the disposal of revisors working at the Flora Malesiana.

The selection has proved very difficult and was often arbitrary in order to obtain a satisfactory uniform bibliographical level, as the scope and quality of the various papers and their impor- tance for our aim varies enormously. It cannot be denied that, through this selection, a subjective element inevitably enters in.

Many papers are, unfortunately, not provided with keys; still, they have a certain value in efforts towards naming collections. Many papers are not exhaustive, treating representatives of a family or genus from a local region or even part of an island. Other papers were prepared without aiming at a thorough revision. A taxonomist will, however, be glad to have some litera- ture at hand for naming current collections. It is for that aim that the present tool has been forged.

It was, of course, not necessary to give extracts from the great complete Floras and taxonomic- al handbooks, as these are commonly the recognized tools of the systematist.

Introduction FLORA MALESIANA [Ser ave lames:

The bibliography tends to go from the large and wide to the small and narrow, as can be observed from the table of contents.

In chapter 6c families have been arranged alphabetically. It should be borne in mind that the choice of the delimitation of these families is arbitrary. Newly proposed changes have been followed with some conservatism. It has not been found of very great advantage to take up all the segregates which have been proposed in recent times.

Lately there has been a distinct fad towards splitting families, genera, species, in many in- stances resulting into raising taxa to the next higher rank, a tendency against which the Makers of Botany of the last century were always warning us. On the other hand, if it appears that a family contains entirely discordant elements which, in accordance with additional detailed research into pollen structure, embryology, phytochemistry, anatomy, efc., fit in different places in the system of affinities, such a splitting seems entirely justified. If, however, there is only a difference of opinion about the rank of certain groups, which after segregation merely remain in a different rank (level), but with about the same mutual relationship, there seems to be very little scientific advance gained by this splitting. It seems to me that the recent splitting of Magno- liaceae into several families and raising the complex to the order Magnoliales belongs to this category, as well as similar cases in Olacaceae, Sapotaceae, Icacinaceae, Monimiaceae, Cornaceae, Annocaceae, etc. The case of the anomalous genera Sphenoclea and Pentaphragma now removed from the Campanulaceae seems to me to be of another category, since these genera are removed from the order to which the family Campanulaceae belongs. Iam perfectly aware that some fami- lies contain definitely anomalous genera and that in such cases the situation is really clarified by the removal of such genera. If the Siphonodontaceae still remain in position next to the Celastra- ceae there is little scientific gain in raising it to family rank, as the rank of a subfamily would be sufficient to stress its distinction within the Celastraceae. If in Oleaceae, AirY SHAW has found good arguments in favour of removing Nyctanthes from this family to the Verbenaceae, I assume this to be of significant value.

Purely for technical reasons Bambusaceae have, in this bibliography, not been merged with Gramineae proper but are separately treated on a family level immediately after the Gramineae.

Amaryllidaceae, Liliaceae, etc. have only for convenience been accepted in their old delimi- tation which is, as HUTCHINSON has demonstrated, certainly artificial in its simplicity and taxonomically untenable. -

For the same aim Conifers are treated as an entity, though by general consent they consist of many families. In the Moraceae the genus Ficus has been treated separately on account of its colossal size. Saurauia has also been treated separately within the Actinidiaceae.

For the convenience of those using this bibliography cross-references have been made for family names and for generic names in so far as they have been referred to more than one family.

The choice of the references is not wholly uniform. In general the larger works and Floras have not been classified under families, but in several cases the user will find that I have for instance cited one of BACKER’s works on the Java flora. This means that either this treatment is significant for the group in Malaysia or perhaps even comprehensive; from a large experience in using literature for rapid orientation I have intentionally inserted such entries, which at first sight seem superfluous, since they belong to general books dealt with in chapters 5 and 6a.

I was in doubt whether to insert entries for those families which have already been treated in this Flora and would seem, for this reason, now superfluous; it is merely for completeness and uniformity that I have treated such families in the same way as the others.

Families of which only cultivated or introduced species are known to occur in Malaysia, as e.g. Betulaceae, Bromeliaceae, Caricaceae, Tropaeolaceae, etc. are treated in less detail as com- pared with families possessing mainly native representatives.

Although the ‘Flora Malesiana’ is principally concerned with native and wild plants, it appeared useful to insert references to revisions of ornamental plants or those cultivated for other reasons.

Concerning the Philippines and New Guinea I have been rather lavish with references and I hope this will be a help for those who have to identify specimens from these islands.

II

March 1955] Bibliography Introduction

Those who consult chapter 6c should bear in mind that it embraces only books and papers which I assume to be of interest to Malaysian botany! When genera are of worldwide distribu- tion, like many in the Scrophulariaceae, | found it necessary to insert also major works on the New World representatives. In the Araceae, Lauraceae, Loranthaceae, etc., however, I have omit- ted several important papers revising only African or New World representatives.

In families like the Podostemonaceae in which the number of Malaysian representatives is negligeable with respect to the total size of the family, only some of the main works have been mentioned just as far as necessary to understand the taxonomy of the Malaysian members.

Papers in which only a few genera have been revised are not mentioned under the family but have been entered under the respective genera. Comprehensive family monographs as DE CANDOLLE’s Monographia Phanerogamarum and the Pflanzenreich have not been cited under the various genera. In some large families treated in the latter work, which consist of a number of parts, names of Malaysian genera have been mentioned as an annotation.

No reference has been made in chapter 6c to the first edition of the ‘Pflanzenfamilien’, since that work is complete and is provided with indices, but reference has been made to the families treated in the incomplete 2nd edition. No annotations seemed necessary for the ‘Pflanzen- familien’ and the ‘Pflanzenreich’ entries as the scope of these works is well known.

There are very many articles, reports, and even books, in which plant names are mentioned in the text but do not occur as official lists (with or without references). Although they sometimes contain valuable information, they do not belong to proper phytography and have, for this reason, been omitted.

Papers mainly dealing with anatomy, morphology or geographical distribution are only mentioned if they may be of help for orientation or appear to be of important taxonomic value.

For the convenience of those who can read Dutch, and to whom journals or books written in Dutch are available, references to such works have been cited.

I am perfectly aware that, from the purely bibliographical standpoint of citation, this bibliog- raphy leaves much to be desired; sometimes citation of figures has been omitted and there is no absolute uniformity in abbreviations. This is partly due to the fact that the work was done over a considerable period with many interruptions. It should also be considered that no biblio- graphical aims were pursued, but the purely practical goal of temporarily providing our readers with a tolerable basis for current work. It is not accurate enough to depend on for copying citations without consulting the originals. But I hope that during the typing, retyping, and printing, only few errors will have crept into the tens of thousands of figures it contains.

It should be borne in mind that in titles I have intentionally not kept the original orthography of certain words as regards capitals, the use of which differs in the Latin, German, French, English, etc. languages. I have preferred to capitalize (hence, emphasize) all those words which appear in a title as important words. I have therefore written ‘Hortus Indicus Malabaricus’ and not ‘Hortus indicus malabaricus’ which is the correct way in Latin. The names of towns in which works in Latin were issued I have not kept under their Latin equivalents; thus a work issu- ed at ‘Leipzig’ is not mentioned as having been printed at ‘Lipsiae’.

Under each family, country (island) or genus references have been enumerated alphabetically under author’s names, except in a very few cases.

Synonyms of several genera have been added in brackets after the accepted generic name. As the references under each genus have been enumerated alphabetically under authors’ names, it does not follow that the reduction has been made by the author of the first reference to a generic name.

It is intended to compile, in subsequent volumes, supplementary lists in order to furnish sub- scribers with up to date references and corrections, and enable them to take full advantage of progress in our field.

In compiling this bibliography I enjoyed the co-operation of Mrs M. J. VAN STEENIS-KRUSE- MAN and acknowledge the facilities given by the librarian of the Rijksherbarium who assisted in procuring a great number of books for checking. Dr H. SLEUMeER, during a visit to the British

Il

Introduction FLORA MALESIANA

Museum (Nat. Hist.) and the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, was kind enough to verify a number of items not available in Holland in which he was assisted by the Librarian of the Museum and by Mr H. S. MARSHALL. There remained a small number of books which could not be located within my immediate reach and the pertaining references could therefore not be annotated; they are marked ‘Non vidi’.

IV

1. GENERAL BOTANICAL HANDBOOKS

BENTHAM, G. & J. D. HOOKER, Genera Plantarum, etc. 3 vols (1862—1883).—Generic descriptions; in Latin.

CANDOLLE, A. & C. DE, Monographia Phanero- gamarum prodromi nunc continuatio, nunc revisio, 1-9 (1878-1896).-The families mono- graphed herein are inserted in chapier 6c.

CANDOLLE, A. P., A. & C. DE, c.s., Prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis sive enume- ratio contracta ordinum generum specierumque plantarum, etc. 17 vols (1824-1873), index 1-4 (1842-1874).-Complete descriptive account of genera and spp. in Latin; no keys.

DALLA TorRE, C. G. DE & H. HARMS, Genera Siphonogamarum, etc. (1900-1907).-Index of generic and infrageneric names.

ENGLER, A. (ed.), c.s., Das Pflanzenreich, etc. Heft 1-107 (1900-1953).-Families of which monographs have appeared in this work have been referred to in chapter 6c. References to these have been made with the separate parts

(Hefte) to avoid the intricate way of numbering of these parts. Keys and descriptions in Latin, other matter in German.

—, & K. PRANTL (ed.), Die natiirlichen Pflanzen- familien (Ast ed.), 4 Teile (1887-1908), 4 Nach- trage (1897-1915).-This widely used work has not been extracted in chapter 6c. Families treated in the 2nd edition of the work which is still far from complete have been referred to in chapter 6c. In German.

Index Kewensis, etc. 2 vols (1893-1895), 11 Suppl. (1901-1953).-References to descriptions of new genera and species.

Index Londinensis, etc. 6 vols (1929-1931), Suppl. 1-2 (1941).-Index to figures of plants.

LemeE, A., Dictionnaire descriptif et synonymique des genres de plantes phanérogames. Brest. 1-7, 8a—b (1929-1943).-Descriptions of all genera alphabetically arranged; vol. 8 contains keys to the genera of each family.

2. GENERAL AND LOCAL BOTANICAL BIBLIOGRAPHIES with special reference to the tropics of the Old World except Africa

ANONYMOUS, Tooa Kyoo ei ken-Sigenkagaku-bun- kenmokuroku. Bibliographic index for the study of the natural resources of the Great Asia co- prosperity sphere. Department of Education, Dai Nippon. Except for the references wholly in Japanese.

1. New Guinea (1942) 259 + 81 pp. Botany p. 20-61.

2. French Indo-China & Thailand (1942) 253 + 81 pp. Botany p. 19-48.

3. Philippines (1942) 391 + 61 pp. Botany p. 35-155.

4. Malay Peninsula (‘Malay’) (1943) 241 + 11 pp. Botany p. 38-108.

5. Micronesia (1944) (by Huzio UTINoMI). Bibliographia Micronesica scientiae naturalis et cultus. Kokoryukan. Tokyo (1945) i-iii, 1-3, 1-208; Botany 1-21. Non vidi.-A 2nd edition in English was edited by the Univ. of Hawaii Press (1952), the botany section of which was translated by K. SAKImMURA and edited by H. ST. JoHN; repr. p. 3-16.

6. East Indies (1944) 689 + 19 pp. Non vidi.

—, An annotated bibliography of the Southwest Pacific and adjacent areas. Issued by the Allied Forces. 1944. 3 vols.—Non vidi.

1. The Netherlands and British East Indies and Philippine Islands.

2. Malaya. Thailand, Indo-China.

3. The China Coast and the Japanese Empire.

BLAKE, S. F. & A. C. ATwoop, Geographical guide to Floras of the World. Part 1 (U.S. Dep. Agric. Wash. Misc. Publ. 101, 1942, 1-—336).- Useful annotated list of Floras and plant- geographical works inthe wide sense, geographic- ally arranged. Asia has not yet been treated.

BLATTER, E., A bibliography of the Botany of British India and Ceylon (Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 20, 1911, Ixxix—clxxvi).

BOERLAGE, J. G., Literatuur Botanie (in F. S. A. DE CLERCQ, Ethnogr. Beschrijving v. d. West- en Noordkust van Ned. Nieuw-Guinea. Leiden, 1893, 272—273).—Bibl. New Guin. 1884 onwards.

Fretp, H., Bibliography on Southwestern Asia. Univ. Miami Press (1953) xvi + 106 pp.— Anthropogeography, botany and zoology; total 3000 titles. Covering Near East as far as and including Afghanistan.

JACKSON, B. D., Guide to the literature of botany; being a classified selection of bota- nical works, including nearly 6000 titles not given in Pritzel’s ‘Thesaurus’. London (1881) i-xl, 1-626.

JUNGHUHN, F., Opgaaf betreffende de literatuur over de Flora van Java (in JUNGHUMN, Java, ed. 2, Dutch ed., 1, 1853, 179-198).—Annotated bibliography of Java; in Dutch.

Kuntze, O., Notizen zu Pritzel’s Thesaurus Literaturae Botanicae (Rev. Gen. Pl. 1891, cxxil-cxlvi; ibid. pars III, 1898, 153-162).—

These corrections contain unfortunately many errors.

Lam, H. J., Materials towards a study of the Flora of the island of New Guinea (Blumea 1, 1934, 115—159).—Contains lists of families revised in Bot. Jahrb. and Nova Guinea and a list of books and papers.

MERRILL, E. D., Index to Philippine literature I-6 (Philip. J. Sc. 2, 1907, Bot. 241-250, 345-349, 437-439; l.c. 3, 1908, 87-94; Lc. 4, 1909, 677-685; Lc. 5, 1910, 259-266).-Lists of annotated references.

Vv

Early works

—, A contribution to the bibliography of the botany of Borneo (Sarawak Mus. J. 2, 1915, 99-136), supplemented in MerrRILL, E. D., A_ biblio- graphic enumeration of Bornean plants (J. Str. R. As. Soc. Special no, 1921, 2-6).—Extensive Bornean bibliography.

—, An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants vol. 4 (1926) 155—239.-Extensive bibliography on Philippine botany.

—, Polynesian botanical bibliography, 1773-1935 (Bull. Bern. P. Bish. Mus. no 144, 1937, 1-194).

—, A botanical bibliography of the islands of the Pacific with A subject index by E. H. WALKER (Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 30, pt 1, 1947, 1-404).— Amplification of that of 1937. Annotated!

& E. H. Watker, A bibliography of Eastern Asiatic Botany (Arn. Arb. Harv. Univ. 1938, i—xlii, 1-719).-Comprehensive account.

PetcnH, T., Bibliography of books and papers relating to’ Agriculture and Botany to the end of the year 1915. Peradeniya Manuals no 3 (1925) 1-256.—Bibliogr. of Ceylon arranged under headings; over 5000 titles. References 3737-4368 deal with taxonomy of Phanerogams and ferns; most references arranged under families.

PritzeEL, G. A., Thesaurus Literaturae Botanicae, etc. (ed. JESSEN pp.). Leipzig (1872-1877) 1-577. —Covers all botanical literature with admirable accuracy, specially regarding books and pam- phlets.

REHDER, A., The Bradley Bibliography. Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plain, Mass. (1911-1918) 5 vols.-Comprehensive bibliography of mainly woody plants described before 1900.

—., Bibliography of cultivated' Trees and Shrubs, etc. Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plain, Mass. (1949) i-xl, 1-825.-With many references to infraspecific taxa. Non vidi.

FLORA MALESIANA

[ser. I, vol. 5!

SANTAPAU, H., Contributions to the bibliography of Indian Botany (Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 50, 1952, 520-548; ibid. 51, 1952, 205-259). -Intended as a complement to BLATTER’S work (see above). Besides the list of titles, the greater part of the work consists of extracted references arranged in families.

STEENIS, C. G. G. J. VAN, Annotated list of literature for the use of botanists and explo- rers in Malaysia (Fl. Mal. I, 1, 1950, xxxiii— xli).

STEENIS-KRUSEMAN, M. J. VAN, Malaysian plant collectors and collections, etc. (Fl. Mal. I, 1, 1950, i-clii, 1-639).—-Bibliographic references to the collections arranged under the col- lectors.

& W.T. STEARN, Dates of Publication (F\. Mal. I, 4, 1954, clxiii-ccxix)._Extremely useful ac- count of exact dates of publication of certain botanical works; supplementary to PRITZEL’s, JACKSON’S and other’s bibliographies.

Tucker, E. M., Catalogue of the Library of the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University. Cambridge, Mass. 3 vols (1914-1933).— Valuable catalogue.

WALKER, E. H., Contribution toward a Bibliogra- phy of Thai Botany (Nat. Hist. Bull. Siam Soc. 15, 1952, 27-88).—-Annotated bibliogr. of Siamese taxonomic botany.

Wit, H. C. D. dE, Short history of the phytography of Malaysian vascular plants. (Fl. Mal. I, 4, 1949, Ixx—clxi)._Each chapter has been pro- vided with numerous references relating to the history of