' f- '-r


*ife. ^ ^*w*..







VOL. III. MAY 1889 to APRIL 1890.



Vol K





American Association of Concliolo2'ists. Ancylus excentriciis Mor. ....

Annotated List of the Shells of St. Augustine, Fla. Anodonta fluviatilis. ....

Arion foliolatiis Gld. rediscovered.

Arion foliolatus, On the generic position of

Bermuda Shells. .....

Brief Notes on the Land and Fresh Water Shells

Co., Ill

Bulimulus, a New American.

Bulimuliis Ragsdalei, n. sp. . . .

Bulimulus Hemphilli Wright. . Bythinia tentaculata L. in Ohio. Cast up by the Sea. .....

Collecting Land Shells in Southern California.

Collecting Land Shells in Eastern New York.

Corolla, On the Genus,

Crepidula glauca, notes on.

Crepidula glauca vs. convexa.

Crepidula, A 'few last words on

Critiques and comments.

Cypraea, Notes on the genus

Cypraea venusta Sowb.


of Mercer




114, 137












109, 129









Floridiau Shells, Notes on ...

Genus making. .....

Glandina buUata Old. ....

Helix Roperi, n. sp. ....

Heli.N; Dentoni, n. sp., description of.

Helices neAV to the fauna of the United States.

Helix Kelleti Fbs

Helix nenioralis in Virginia.

Helix nenioralis, The Virginia Colony of

Helix hirsuta on the West Coast.

Helix (Triodopsis) edentata, n. sp., Description of

Helix Streatori, n. sp.

Helix granum Strebel.

Helix clausa Say.

Helix hortensis in America.

Helicina occulta, Distribution of

Helicina occulta in Brown Co., Wis.

Hemphillia (Genus.) ....

Hyalina Sterkii Dall

In a Maine Conchologist's Hunting Grounds. Leaves from a Diary. ....

Limax eaten ))y Salamanders. . Liraax agrestis in Philadelphia, Pa. Limax Hewstoni in Los Angelos Co., Cal. Limosina in Texas. .....

List of the Shells of the New Jersey coast. List of the Mollusca of Colorado. Lophocardium, Notes on ...

Mammoth Land Shell. ....

New American Shells. ....

New Varieties of North American Land Shells. New Western Slugs. ....

Notes on variation of certain ^Mollusca introduced from

Europe. ....

Notes upon Mr. Ancey's criticism. Notes on some Northern Pupida^ with description of a new

species. . . . . . . 117, 1

Ocinebra (O. Jencksii, n. sp.), Description of a new .

On a Singular Imitation in Ostrea Virginica

On Mr. Pilsbry's critics upon some American Shells.

53 5 83 14 17 25 35 51 73 81 85 95 25


140 18,20



59, 90


143 19 95

105 9 27 99 13 29 95



86 42

23, 135 80 26 39


Paludina scalaris Jay.

Patula Cooperi in Colorado and Utah

Patula caeca Guppy

Patula incrustata Pfr.

Patula strigosa, n. var. subcarinata. .

n. var, bicolor.

n. var. lactea. .

n. var. jugalis.

n. var. intersum Phenacarion n. g. Physa triticea, Notes on Planorbis Liebmanii Dkr. Planorbis cultratus Orb. Poecilozonites circumfirmatus var. corueus Proceedings of Scientific Societies. Prophysaon. .....

Publications received. . . 12, 24, 35, 47, 71 Pupa Holzingeri, n. sp. .....

Pupa calamitosa, n. sp. .

Pupa Sterkiana, n. sp.

Pupa Pilsbryana, n. sp. . . . . .

Pyrgula, on lingual dentition, etc. of

Recent addition to the United States Snail Fauna.

Scalaria angulata in New Jersey.

Scalaria, on the New Jersey coast.

Shells new to the United States Fauna.

Shell collecting in Southern Texas. ...

Shell Bearing Mollusca of Rhode Island. 21, 32, 44, Sphaerium Cubense Prime. ....

Strobila Hubbardi A. D. B

Summer Studies in Conchology. ...

Trochus infundibulum, notes on the soft parts, etc.

Tylodina, on a new species of

Unio complanatus in Michigan.

Valvata (Lyogyrus) Brownii, notes on.

What is a species ? . . . .

Word to Young Collectors.

Zonites Ligerus var. Stonei, n. var.

Zonites selenitoides, n. sp.

Zonites (Guppya ?) Gundlacbi Pfr. .





25, 62














107, 144











, 82, 92














Aldrich, T. H.

Ancey, C. F.

Baker, F. C. .

Binuey, W. G.

Campbell, John H.

Carpenter, H. F.

Cockerell, T. D. A.

Ball, Dr. Wm. H.

Ford, John.

Ford, Frank J.

Hemphill, Henry.

Hinkley, A. A.

Johnson, C. W.

Keep, Prof. Josiah.

Keyes, C. R.

Lind, Dr. G. D.

Marsh, Wm. A.

Marston, Geo. T.

Pilsbry, H. A.

Roper, E. W.

Simpson, Chas. T.

Stearns, Dr. R. E. C.

Sterki, Dr. V. .

Streator, Geo. J.

Teator, W. S. .

Walker, Bryant.

"Williamson, Mrs. M. Burton.

Wright, Berlin H. .


20, 35, 42






21, 32, 44, 56, 67, 69. 82, 92

8, S6, 95, 99, 111, 126, 139

2, 8, 13, 25, 30, 98, 121




103, 114, 137

54, 115

. 18, 36


. 23,- 34


46, 51, 61, 95, 106, 122 . 5,35,77,97 5, 26, 78, 88 29, 49, 64, 81 69, 117, 123, 135. 46 67, 109, 129. . 9, 16 105, 143 19


The predecessor of the Nautilus was "The Conchologists Ex- change," established in 1886, by Mr. W. D. Averell. Two volumes were published varying in size from a postal card to the form of a small 12mo.


The Nautilus.

Vol. III. MAY, 1889. No. 1.


THE publishers of The Nautilus feel that no explanation of their object in offering this journal to the scientific public is necessary. The need of an American publication devoted especially to the interests of Conchologists is felt throughout the country. One of the greatest difficulties which the student of science has to overcome is found in the scattered and fragmentary character of scientific literature. The "Proceedings" or "Transactions" of a hundred societies, and the pages of innumerable journals must be searched through before one can be certain that a given fact or observation has or has not been recorded.

The simplest way to better this condition of things will lie to limit by some means the number of publications in which a certain subject is likely to be treated upon ; and this is most easily done by establishing journals devoted to special branches of science. It is the aim of The Nautilus to afford such a medium for all who are interested in studying the jNIollusca ; and to this end the co-operation of all friends of science is solicited.

All subscribers to the Conchologists' Exchange (of which this paper is the successor) will be credited on the books of The Nautilus with the amounts due them upon the suspension of that journal. All subscribers will be allowed one insertion of twenty-five words in the Exchange Column, free of charge.



With an account of a remarkable Sexual Modification of the Epipodium. hitherto undescribed in MoUusca.


The prei^ence of a verge, or iiitroiuittent male organ, has lutherto, atjiong the Rhii)hi(logh)ssate Mollusks, beeu recorded only in Xer- itina (Claparede) and certahi Limpets. The organ as it exists in Xeritina and Nerita, is so short and obscure that its function and even its existence has been called in question. "When I showed its existence in the rather anomalous Addisonia parndoxa and Coceidina spinigera, curious deep-sea limpets, it was questioned whether they were not peculiarly modified Tcenioglossa.

Since then, in several deep-sea Mollusks, such as Bimula, Marga- rita and others indisputably l)elongingto the Bhiphidoglossa, I have found a well-developed verge; and there is little doubt that the an- cestors of this group, as well as of the Teetiioglossa, were so provided, and that some of these deep-sea forms have retained the organ now generally obsolete in their shallow water congeners. In combination with this survival, one of the species, Trochus infundihnlum "Watson, offers a singular and very interesting special modification of the an- terior portion of the epipodium on the right side, which appears worthy of particular attention.

The soft parts of this species afiTord several notes of interest. The external ])arts, except the eyes, are white. The foot is Avide, straight and double-edged in front, and, as fsar as one can judge from speci- mens contracted in alcohol, must have beeu somewhat pointed or produced at its anterior corners iu life. The sides of the foot are nearly smooth, below tlie epipodial line.

The nuizzle is small and slender at its proximal end, enlarged and transversely semi-lunar at its distal extremity. The oral surface of the nuizzle is smooth, the mouth very small ; the oral disk is flat and produced on each side into a thin linguiform lappet, with simple and entire edge. These lappets are remarkably long, their ends reaching as far as the ends of the true tentacles, and serve as tactile organs, like the oral tentacles of the Lepetldce, or the much smaller lappets of AcmcBa. "When not feeding, or seeking food, these lappets would seem to be applied to the sides of the foot below the epipodium.



The oral disk is entire, but is sliglitly indented in tlie median Vnw. below a furrow running up toward the mouth.

The cephalic tentacles are very stout and large, very elongate- conical, with moderately pointed tips. They are situated above, and not, as in most Trochidce, on each side of the muzzle. Their inner bases are connate, and there is no intertentacular "veil," or any tubercular traces thereof.

The eyes are large, strongly pigmented, ovoid, and sessile on the outer bases of the tentacles, or ])erhaps T should say, just by the outer bases. They are not pedunculate or elevated on pedicels in any of the specimens examined, and 1 am quite confident that this is not caused by the contraction due to alcohol, but is normal to the sj)ecies.

The epii)odial apparatus is complicated, and exhibits a certain amount of variation between diffei-ent individuals in the situation and number of its processes. In the males, it is subjected to a re- markable modification for sexual purposes. The epipodium begins immediately behind the eye and a trifle below it. In the females it is produced into a large broadly linguiform process, half as long as the cephalic tentacles and fringed with close-set uniform small pointed papillae or filaments. This process exists in the male on the left side. The posterior margin then curves in toward the side of the foot ; it becomes quite narrow and shows two lateral tentacles of moderate size; then a vacant space ; then at the front edge of the operculum two or three filaments, small, but larger than any in the vacant sjiace ; then another, but larger one ; and finally another, which is behind the middle of the operculum, and is the last on that side. The e})ipodial line is continued to the end of the foot, the dorsal sur- face above it, being transvei*sely rugose and with a linear median furrow. On the other (right) side we find a small, a large, two sub- equal small, another large filament, followed by a slight gap and then by a still larger tentacular process. The flap which corresponds to the fringed process on the left side, is remarkably modified in the male.

Behind, and close to the right eye, is a small tubular, longitudi- nally striate, cylindrical verge, not exceeding (in alcohol) two mill- imetres in length. Below it the epipodial flap is enormously pro- duced, and its front edge is rolled backward upon itself, forming a tube into the proximal opening of which the end of the verge may project. The fla]) is rolled so that it makes nearly two layers, and thus a verv capable cylinder, which, when unrolled and released,


will immediately coil it.<elf up again. Thi.s cylinder is of subequal diameter tliroaghout, and is as long as, and somewhat stouter than, the cephalic tentacles. Externally, near its base, it is nearly smooth ; further out, it is spirally striate; near its extremity, it becomes thicker and rather deeply externally grooved longitudinally, with short, even, close-set, slightly spiral, grooves. The opening at the distal end is fringed with short, equal papillae, each one corresponding to the thickened interspace between two of the grooves. These raised folds, or interspaces, are also finely transversely striate. At the base of the cylinder, the epipodium extends backward to the first lateral filament ; and the margin of this part is perfectly entire and simple, showing neither fringe nor granulation. The object of this apparatus is self-evident. The cylinder serves as a conduit for the seminal fluid ejected from the verge. Whether it may be employed in an actual copulation is doubtful ; it may merely serve to spread the seminal matter over the eggs as they are deposited by the female. I am not aware that anything of this sort has been observed in any other gastropod, up to the present time.

The edge of the mantle is smooth, entire, and slightly thickened. Within the nuchal chamber the anus is visible on the right side. The end of the intestine, for a considerable distance, is free from the mantle and projects like a tentacle. The termination is slightly con- stricted, then enlarged into a cup, or trumpet-shaped ending, Avhich nearly reaches the mantle-edge.

The intestine itself, after leaving the stomach, is much convoluted, but in the main, rises and is brought forward nearly to the mantle- edge above the stomach ; then turns back and is carried far into the visceral coil before it is again brought forward and terminated as above described. The food consists of Foramiuifera.

The gill is free, except at its base, and consists of very elongate- triangular foundation, from which depend triangular lamellae, without a raphe and wide at their bases. These grow larger prox- imaliy.

The operculum is thin, polished, amber-colored, centrally de- pressed, having a central projection, or nipple, on its under-side, and consists of about four whorls.

The specimen affording the above notes has been identified with Mr. Watson's type specimen, and is now deposited with it in the British Museum. It was dredged by the U. S. Fish Commission east of Chesapeake Bay, in 1685 fathoms.



While cleaning up the trophies of a recent successful trip to the lieach, I wondered if my fellow shell collecters, who live near the .sea- shore, appreciate the need of closely following up the .storms. It is not enough to go occasionally. The beach ought to be .searched every time a strong on-shore wind brings in a heavy surf. And the visit ought to be made at the first low tide. Another Hood tide with change of wind may bury the most precious treasures under the sand. I may go nineteen times to the three-mile beach near my home, and get nothing new, although I should never come home empty handed ; but on the twentieth visit a shell is found of a species I have not before collected. Once it was a little red Margarita imdulata ; and again a Bela harpularia. Only the enthusiastic col- lector knows the peculiar pleasure of such discoveries, and only the collector experiences a pang at the sight of some rare shell hopelessly broken, as I have many times seen the fragile Thracia conradi. The latter and other bivalves live beyond low-water mark, very likely so deep in the sand that a dredge would pass over them. But in a heavy easterly gale the great breakers, pounding on the outer bar at low tide, plow up their home, and rolling over and over, the helpless shells are brought to shore by the incoming tide. It is noticeable that seldom do two storms bring in a similar class of shells.

I remember one gale which literally strewed the beach with tens of thousands of the " little amethystine gems" which Totten called Venus gemma. Another time the razor shells and the pretty Mach- cera costata will suffer, and again the prevailing species will be Lun- atia, Buccinum and Fusiis. Eight times, in as many years, I have found the large Solemya borealis, twice alive. The little *S^. velum ig more common. Once I captured a living Pecten tenuicostatus of large size. How violently he opened and shut his shell when placed in a shallow pan of fresh water ! But in spite of assiduous collecting I can note less than seventy marine shells found in Revere. Doubt- less collectors on more southern shores can find a greater variety.



Genus making is the fashion now-a-days with a certain school of conchologists. Parties addicted to this work have access to good


libnirie? and an extensive collection of shells, and their whole aim in life seems to be making new genera. In some one of the older groups a few species are found, having a certain peculiar pattern of sculp- ture or coloring, or some little singularity in the fold of the col- umella or hinge teeth, and presto, a genus is formed and the science is burdened with another name!

These genus-makers never stop to see whether this slight jjeculiarity does not imperceptibly shade out into other species which are n'^t as marked ; this is no business of theirs ; the main point seems to be the attaining of a sort of cheap reputation for scientific knowledge.

According to Tryon's Structural and Systematic Conchology, there were, at the time of its publication in round numbers, about 6,000 of these so-called genera, besides a great many synonyms, a number which has been largely increased since that date. Even the old genus Helix, without Nanina and Zonites, has some 200 of these names, many of which have never been characterized. Xo doubt our increasing knowledge and the good of the science has demanded that some of these older genera should be divided. In days gone by the name Pyrula embraced a large proportion of the marine univalve shells, having a short spii'e and lengthened canal, while Fusus in- cluded about all with a similar canal and elevated spire. So Buc- cinum was a miscellaneous group, characterized principally by a notch at the base of the aperture. As now generally recognized, Pyrula includes only pear-shaped shells of thinpajnraceous structure, Fusus a sort of spindle-shaped species, and Buccinum a small, well- defined, perfectly natural grouj).

I am aware that those who favor this dismemberment of the older genera claim that many of tliese groups are too large for studying advantageously, and tluit the variation from the type of a genus is verv gradual through long series of species, to forujs wdiich are so difiierent from the type that no descri|)tion will cover the whole, and the very ambiguous description of Helix is quoted as an example of this. Mr. Binney, in the Manual of American Land Shells, says : " In common with all who have studied the Pfeifferian genus Helix^ I have long been convinced of the necessity of recognizing among its species numerous distinct genera. ^ ^i^ * Before recognizing these groups as distinct genera, I desire to wait until we can ascertain whether generic characters can be found in the jaws and lingual dentition, as well as in the shells. Convinced that chai-aeters cannot be found in these organs, or in the genitalia, I ado])tcd, in that work,


(Ten-. Moll., U.S.) the (li,snieni])enucnt of the gemis so imieli de- manded by the number of its 8pecie.s, founding the distinction on the sliell alone."

It was as if the court had made up its mind beforehand, but had waited for the evidence to establish the decision, and when the evi- dence did not support it, the decree was rendered just as the court had intended all along. jNIany of these so-called genera of Helix have no value at all, and others so little as to be almost worthless for purposes of classification. Our well-known Mesodon runs into Triodopsis, and Arionta and Aglaia cannot always be separated. Tryon at one time placed Helix devius, Gould, in the genus Me.sodon, and at another time he, as well as Mr. W, G. Binney, called it a Triodopsis. Tryon put Arionta townsendiana, Lea, in the genus Mesodon, and Mr. Binney regards Aglaia hillebrandi, Xewc, as a varietal form of Arionta mormonum. And I might give such illus- trations to the end of the chapter, all of which go to show that even among the savants these so-called genera are well nigh valueless.

But let ub suppose that in any of the larger genera there is a chain of species varying from the. type to those which are very unlike it ; that the variation is very gradual throughout the species. I cannot see that dividing such a genus into a dozen, a hundred, or a thousand genera is going to help the matter or give us any clearer insight into the relationship of the species. I think that the classification should be founded on nature, or in other words, that nature should d(j the classifying, and that our eflforts should be directed to deciphering the Old Dame's work. And if a distinction does not exist between cer- tain so-called species and genera, it is useless to put it there, as it will simply require that somebody in the future, when the truth is reached, will have to throw it out.

The genus Unio, with its thousand species and endless variations, has l)een divided into a number of sub-genera by the genus makers ; but a Unio is a Unio for all that, and the merest novice in conchol- ogy would recognize it as such in a moment; while probably not one conchologist in a hundred could tell a Bariosta, Raf, from a Hyridella, Swains. Dr. Isaac Lea showed his great knowledge of this subject when he groujjed them into mere divisions founded on form and sculj^ture.

I think the time has come when a healthful reaction frou) this fever of creating genera and species should set in. Such work simply renders the science of conchology contcni])tible, and it is a veritable


stuinbrm^ block to the ranks of the beginners. To these the science sliouUl 1)0 rendered as simple and attractive as possible, and they should rather be encouraged than discouraged by a formidable array of names without meaning. No one but an expert, a closet natural- ist, who sits in his snug alcove, surrounded by scientific books and collections, and who devotes his entire time to the study, can keep track of the names introduced by this mania, and I doubt if many of these can do it.

The old landmarks of the noble science are going one by one, and we should seek to fill the ranks from the young and enthusiastic, from those who have a living to make, and cannot devote their whole time to puzzling over a lot of names that even their authors did not comprehend, and only inflicted upon the world for the sake of gaining notoriety.


Palud'ma scalaris, Jay. Apropos of Mr. Pilsbry's interesting note on this species, I would call attention to the fact, which does not seem to be well understood, that Ameria has been shown in toto to belong not to the Physidce, where it was originally placed, but to the LbiDiaetda'. As there are rounded and carinate Planorbls, so there are rounded and carinate Ameria. Vihether Ameria is more or less than a section of Planorbis is a q.estion, but it seems to me that the high form of the shells is at least as well worthy of recognition by a name as Gyraulus, Helisoma, and other forms commonly so recog- nized. Whether J., scalaris belongs to the Limna?ime or the Planor- hiiw, should be easy of determination since the form of the tentacks would serve to decide this at a glance. Wm. H. Dall, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C.

Patula cooper i, in Colorado and Utah. This interesting species is extremely common in parts of Colorada, and also, it would appear, in the Wahsatch Mountains of Utah, where it is accomjjanied by four others of the same group. It is decidedly variable and for reference it may be useful to class the principal varieties as follows : a. typica, the ordinary form in Colorado, with two distinct bands, diameter 19 to 25 mill.; b. elevata, spire elevated, Utah (Hemphill) and Colorado, a specimen found by Surface Creek, Delta Co., had alt., 122, and diam. 10 mill ; c. viinor, very small, Utah (Hemphill); d. conjiiiens, bands confluent, shell therefore brown with a broad white band above the periphery and a white umbilical region, Col-


orado, by the Grand River, in Clarfield Co., and by Plateau Creek, in Mesa Co.; e. trifasciata, with three bands, one above the peripliery and two below, all distinct, the area between the first band and the suture marbled with brown, Mam Mountains, Mesa Co., Colorado ; f. alba, white with rough striio, Utah (Hem})hiH). Hemphill also mentions a white variety of Patula strigosa, G\d., from Utah, which may be called var. alba.

I have recently found Cochlieopa labrica and Hyalina radiatula near here. Also Liw.nmi truncatula and two si)ecies of small Pupa;, which may be new. Theo. D. A. Cockerell, West Cliff, Col.

On the occurrence of Limosiua in Texas. According to Prime, the species of this group are "widely and abundantly distributed through Central and South America and the West Indies," to the exclusion of the equally abundant species of Sphoirium peculiar to the United States. Several years ago Mr. G. C. Heron sent me three specimens of a Sphcerium from Cedar Creek, Hudson Co., Texas, w'hose unusual shape and mottled epidermis at once struck me as peculiar. On sending one of the specimens directly to Mr. H. A. Pilsbry, of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, for iden- tification, I was informed that he could not satisfactorily identifS^ it with any known species, but that it was nearer to L. cubeuse Prime, than to anything else, although for the present the specific identity of the specimen must remain uncertain. The occurrence of this group, hitherto unknown to our fauna within the United States, would seem to be a fact worthy of record. Bryant Walker, Detroit, Mich.

H. (Fruticicola) shnilaris, Fer., Triodopsis appressa, Say, Steu- ogyra decollata, L., in Bermuda. All three have been probably in- troduced in the past 25 years. During a recent visit, I found the first mentioned near the Government house in Hamilton. The second species was shown me by Miss A. INI. Peniston, of The Fhitts, who secured it from Mr. Bartram. It occurs near St. Georges. The last species is so common it threatens to become injurious to the crops there. It was introduced with some European plants, and first made its appearance at Mt. Longdon. Stenogyra odona Chem., is also found upon the island, and is not mentioned by Bland. T. H. Aldrich, Southern Ave., Cincinnati, Ohio.

In the Western American Scientist for April, p. 8, ]\Ir. Berlin H. Wright has described as new, under the name of Bulimulus liemp- hilli, the species figured by Binney (Manual N. A. Laud Shells, fig. 440) as a variety of £. floridanus. The form in question should be compared with B. inarielinus Poey.




Since the puhlieutiou of the latest mouograiih on the genus Cy[)neii tliat by j\Ir. Roberts in Tryon's ^Manual of Conchoh)gy four new species have been described, viz :

Cypnea amphithales Melvlll, South Africa.

Cyprcea cajnddraconis Melvill, Hong-Kong.

Cyprcea Hungerfordii Soioerby, Hong-Kong.

Ci/prcea JRashleighana Melvill, hab. unknown.

Each of them has been described, apparently, from a single spec- imen, and it is not at all certain but that two of Mr. Melvill's species, amphithales and caput-draconis may turn out to be mere varieties.

In Mr. Melvill's " Survey of the genus Cypriea," reprinted in pamphlet form in ^Manchester, England, last year, a large number of new varieties of known species are described— some of them founded upon mere color variations. Most of them seem to me un- necessary additions to shell nomenclature. Tryou and Roberts recognized 146 species of Cypra^a proper and 40 species of Trivia making 186 species in the genus. Mr. ^Nlelvill, in his survey, differs with them upon some points. He changes C. princeps, Gray, to C. valentia, Perry; C. undata, Lam., to C. diluculnm, Reeve; and C. turdiis, Lam., to C. ovata. Perry ; reduces from specific to varietal rank, C. reticulata, Martyn ; C. coxi. Brazier ; C. jyolita Roberts ; C. semiplota, Mighels; C. cernica, Sowerby ; C. coxeni, Cox; C. sophice, Brazier; C. microdon, Gray; C. macula, Adams; and C. fuscomaeulata. Pease; and advances to specific rank the following varieties : C. caput-anguis, Phil.; 0. fabula, Kiener ; C. coffea, Soiverby ; C. menkeana, Deshayes ; C. brevidentata, Soiverby ; C. bregeriana, Crosse; C. comptoni. Gray; C. depanperata, Soiverby; and C. scabriiiscula, Gray.

I have lately received a fine specimen of C. bregeriana, Crosse, New Caledonia, from ^Ir. G. B. Sowerby, of London, who writes to me that he is now of the ojiinion that it is a good species and not a va- riety of C. walkeri. Gray, as he thought it to be when he published his mon<)gra})h in the Thesaurus. Mr. Roberts also make it a variety of C. walkeri. AVeinkauff and Melvill give it specific rank, as does also Mr. Richard C. Rossiter, of New Caledonia. I think it is, undoubtedly, a good species. The white specks are characteristic and are not found in C. walkeri.

A large series of specimens of C. cervus Linn, and C. exanthema Linn., which I have in my collection, leads me to doubt whether these two species are really distinct. No authentic localities outside of Panama and vicinity, West Indies, PTorida and Southeastern United States are known in connection with either of them, and they are found indiscriminately in the localities named. A beauti- ful set of specimens of C. cervus, from the South Florida Keys, are in the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. I have spec-


inicns of both species from several localities in the West Indies, and the characters described in the books do not hold good to separate them. It is a pity that some naturalist has not examined the animals.

It is also doubtful if C. exusta Sowerby, and C. talpa, Linn, are distinct. I have a si)ecimen of the typical C. exusta from Mr. Sowerby, and another which I received from Mr. Damon, of Wey- mouth, England, seems to me to connect the two species. Weinkauff may be right in making C. exusta a variety of C. talpa.

The opinion hekl by some that C. decipiens Smith, was a dwarf variety of C. thersites Gaskoin, has been definitely set at rest by Mr. Sowerby receiving last summer, a number of fine specimens of C. decipiens from Australia. I was fortunate enough to obtain one of them probably the first specimen that has reached America. It is certainly a good species, and one of the most beautiful of all the Cyprieas. The palm of beauty probably lies between it and C. aurantiiim Martyn. By the way, the fabulous prices given for the last-named shell are things of the past. Instead of costing anywhere from SoO to 8100, a good specimen can be obtained for .S15, and the finest kind of one for $20 to $22. It is no longer a rare species, but can readily be obtained from any of the prominent shell-dealers of Europe.

Philadelphia, April 10, 1889.



Chapter XLV.


Sij)hons short, not retractile ; pallial impression sim])Ie, without sinus. This sub-order, contains fifteen families.


Shell regular, oval or sub-trigonal, covered with an epidermis ; hinge with two or three teeth in each valve ; lateral teeth, two, simple or striated ; ligament external ; pallial impression simple, or with a short sinus.

This family has been made the s])ecial study of Mr. Temple Prime, a lawyer of N. Y. Citv, who is authority on this subject. He pub- lished, in 1865, a monograph of the species inhabiting the American Continent, illustrated with figures and giving all the synonyms, localities and other items of interest concerning them. In 1871 he published a catalogue of all the species in the world (of this family), known to date. He divided it into six genera and three hundred and twentv-two species, of which one hundred and eleven are Amer- ican. There are now recognized seven genera and nearlv four huu-


dred si)ecie?. Four genera are represented in America, three in the U. S., and two in New Enghxnd.

Genus Sphcerium, Scopoli,

The genus S])h?erium was characterized under its present name by Scoi)oli in 1777. It has borne some fourteen different names, but lias been better known to conchologists. especially in Europe, by the name of ('yclas, given by Bruguiere in 1792. Gray revived the name of Sph?erium in 1847, and Mr. Prime was the first in America to recognize its claims. There are seventy-five species distributed world-wide; they are found in rivers, ponds, lakes and ditches, in f;act, in all bodies of fresh water, but are more abundant in species and in individuals in the northern parts of our country than in any other section of the world. Four species inhabit Rhode Island, and possibly more.

170. Sphcerium partumeium Say.

I shall not attempt to give the synonymy of this, or any of the species of this genus, or of the next to follow; it would be a weari- some and a thankless task ; these shells ai'e so little known, and the animals inhabiting them have been so little studied that the synonymy is but an entangled mass of errors. For the benefit of those wdio might desire to study deeper into the subject, and to post themselves in regard to the views of authors who have written upon it, I would refer them to Prime's "Monograph of American Corbiculidie," published by the Smithsonian Institution, at Washington, D. C, 1865.

Sphifirium partumeium was first described by Sav in Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, ii, 380, 1822, under" the name of Cyclas partumeia. It is distributed all over the U. S., east of the Rocky Mountains, and its habitat is in stagnant pools and muddy ponds. The animal is of a delicate pink, and the syphonal tubes of the same coh)r. The shell is rounded-oval, thin, fragile and pellucid ; nearly equilateral ; beaks central, calyculate approximate at the apex ; epidermis glossy, light greenish or bluish in color ; interior of valves light blue ; hinge margin nearly straight, curving gradually into the anterior margin, but curving behind, so as to form an obtuse angle, causing the posterior side to ajipear broader ; cardinal teeth strong; lateral teeth much elongated. The young shells are more compressed than the adult, and are of a light yellow color. Length of shell, 9-20, height, 2-5, breadth, 4-15 of an "inch.

(To be continued.')

Numerous publications received will be noticed in our next number.


The Nautilus.

^<>L. HI. JULY, 1889. No. 3.



SOME time since, among some shells from Southeastern Florida, received from Mr. G. W. Webster, two small Helices were noticed which a careful comparison with known U. S. forms foiled to identify. By the kind intervention of Mr. H. A. Pilsbry, they were determined to be H. {Microconus) cceca Guppy, described from Trinidad, and H. (if.) granum Strebel, previously known from jNIex- ico. This induced me to overhaul the small species in our collection to see if these forms had by any chance crept in under other names. The result was, that I found H. cjranum, which had hurriedly been referred to Guppy ia Gundlachi, and H. cceca which had been left unnamed probably as the young of something else.

The localities now known in Florida for the above species are as follows :

H. ciEca. St. Augustine. (C. H. Johnson.) Near St. John's River and near Lake Worth in East Florida, and near the Hills- borough River, emptying into Tampa Bay, West Florida (ISh: G. W. Webster). Mr. Webster identified this si^ecies as H. diosoricola C. B. Adams, descrilied from Jamaica, and it is very probable that it is at most a slightly larger variety of it, in which case Adams' is the oldest name.

H. granum. Archer, Alachua Co., Fla. (Dall.) ; Evans' planta- tion, Rogers River (C. T. Simpson) ; vicinity of Lake Worth (G. W. Webster). When perfect this species is nearly the size of H. labyrinthica, very thin, redclish-brot\n, with very deep sutures

26 Tin: xautilus.

and a rather small, deep, tubular umbilicus. It is covered with beautiful oblique epidermal elevated ridges, which are easily lost, and do not agree with the lines of gi-owth. The H. cceca is much smaller, olive-greenish, with a silky lustre and few inflated whorls, the first of which is usually finely punctate.

The suture is very deep and the umbilicus jDrojiortionally larger than in H. granum.



I have before me a shell of Cerithium atratum about 18"""- in length, which has attached to it and growing on the side of its spire a young Ostrea virginica about lO"""- in length, and 6"""- in width. There is nothing at all surprising in the fact that a young oyster should so attach itself to a Cerithium or any other shell, but it is surprising that the oy.ster should attempt to pass itself off for a part of the shell on which it grew. For, strangely enough, the upper valve of the oyster is sculptured exactly like the surface of the Cerithium. Each revolving ridge and nodule is repeated on the bivalve exactly as it is found on the spire of the shell on which it grows, just as perfect and distinct in every respect ; the only difference being that they are not quite so strongly elevated as they are on the Cerithium.

Nor is this all. Not only is the sculpture repeated on the valve of the oyster, but the coloring of the Cerithium is carried over upon it ; it being a yellowish-white throughout, covered with brown flecks and spots. When I first examined the shell I supposed that its spire had been injured, and that it had repaired it with an awkward patch ; but only after the closest scrutiny did I discover the truth. Two other very small oysters had attached themselves to other parts of the shell, but as their upper valves were missing at the time I first examined it, I could not tell whether they had been similarly marked or not.

It is no uncommon thing for shells which attach themselves to others, to imitate those on which they grow ; though I have never seen quite so remarkable a case as this. The shells of Anomia glabra and sometimes Cropidula fornicata, when growing on the Pecten imitate them by being ribbed, and Crepidula j^lana has often the texture of the interior- or exterior of the shells on which it


grows, and sometimes Crepidula convexa whicli I found (juite abundantly on Modulus floridanus, has the color and something of the corrugation of that shell, so that at first glance it appears to be merely a patch.

What is the object of this singular species of imitation? I believe without exception it is a means of protection against the rapacitv of boring molluscs ; one of the tricks which nature is constantly exhibit- ing by which the " survival of the fittest " is attained. The shells of the young oyster on the Cerithium, the Crepidula convexa on the Modulus, the Anomias and Crejiidulas on the Pectens, were in every case thinner than those on which they grew, hence more liable to be pierced by carniverous molluscs but by imitating the shells on which they lived they stood a better chance of deceiving their ene- mies, a better chance of self-preservation. Does this not look almost like intelligence, almost akin to what we call thought in man like reason ; like studying from cause to effect? and I believe that such variation as this is often perhaps one of the first steps towards the formation of a new variety, a variation which if continued by circumstances fixes certain characters that define a species, and that these characters remain permanently often after the causes which produced them have passed away.



Ed. Nautilus, Dear Sir:

As a list of the species of Mollusks found on the coast of New Jersey, South of Brigantine Island, may be of interest to your readers, I take the liberty of sending it.

If any others can be